ما المقصود بالمصطلح "الاكتئاب السريري"؟

إجابة من دانييال كي هال فلافين، (دكتور في الطب)

يتراوح الاكتئاب في خطورته من اكتئاب خفيف ونوبات مؤقتة من الحزن إلى اكتئاب حاد ومتواصل. يعد الاكتئاب السريري أكثر أشكال الاكتئاب حدة ويُعرف أيضًا بالاكتئاب الكبير أو الاضطراب الاكتئابي الكبير. وهو ليس مماثلاً للاكتئاب الناتج عن الفقدان، مثل وفاة أحد الأحباب، أو حالة مرضية، مثل اضطراب الغدة الدرقية.

وليشخص الطبيب الإصابة بالاكتئاب السريري، يستعين العديد من الأطباء بمعايير أعراض الاضطراب الاكتئابي الكبير المذكورة في الدليل التشخيصي والإحصائي للاضطرابات العقلية (DSM-5) الذي نشرته الجمعية الأمريكية للطب النفسي.

قد تتضمن أعراض الاكتئاب السريري وعلاماته ما يلي:

  • مشاعر الحزن أو الانهيار في البكاء أو انعدام القيمة أو اليأس
  • نوبات الغضب أو التهيّج أو الإحباط، ولو بسبب أشياء صغيرة
  • فقدان الاهتمام أو المتعة في معظم الأنشطة العادية أو كلها، مثل الجنس أو الهوايات أو الرياضة
  • اضطرابات النوم، بما يتضمن الأرق أو النوم المفرط
  • التعب وفقدان الطاقة، حتى إن المهام البسيطة تستهلك جهدًا إضافيًا
  • انخفاض الشهية وفقدان الوزن، أو زيادة الرغبة الشديدة في تناول الطعام وزيادة الوزن
  • القلق أو الهياج أو التململ
  • تباطؤ التفكير أو التحدث أو حركات الجسم
  • الشعور بانعدام القيمة أو الذنب أو التركيز على حالات الفشل السابقة أو لوم الذات
  • صعوبة التفكير والتركيز واتخاذ القرارات وتذكر الأشياء
  • تكرار التفكير في الموت أو التفكير في الانتحار أو معاودتهما أو محاولات الإقدام عليه أو تنفيذه فعليًا
  • مشكلات بدنية غير محددة السبب، مثل ألم الظهر أو حالات الصداع

عادةً ما تكون الأعراض حادة بما يكفي لتسبب مشكلات ملحوظة في العلاقات مع الآخرين أو الأنشطة اليومية مثل العمل أو المدرسة أو الأنشطة الاجتماعية.

يمكن أن يحدث الاكتئاب السريري لأي شخص من أي عمر بما في ذلك الأطفال. ومع ذلك، حتى إن كانت أعراض الاكتئاب السريري حادة، فعادةً ما تتحسن من خلال الاستشارات النفسية أو الأدوية المضادة للاكتئاب أو كلتيهما معًا.

10/11/2021 See more Expert Answers

اطلع كذلك على

  1. Addison's disease
  2. Adjustment disorders
  3. Adrenal fatigue: What causes it?
  4. After a flood, are food and medicines safe to use?
  5. Alzheimer's: New treatments
  6. Alzheimer's 101
  7. Understanding the difference between dementia types
  8. Alzheimer's disease
  9. Alzheimer's disease: Can exercise prevent memory loss?
  10. Alzheimer's drugs
  11. Alzheimer's genes
  12. Alzheimer's nose spray: New Alzheimer's treatment?
  13. Alzheimer's prevention: Does it exist?
  14. Alzheimer's stages
  15. Ambien: Is dependence a concern?
  16. Antidepressant withdrawal: Is there such a thing?
  17. Antidepressants and alcohol: What's the concern?
  18. Antidepressants and weight gain: What causes it?
  19. Antidepressants: Can they stop working?
  20. Antidepressants: Side effects
  21. Antidepressants: Selecting one that's right for you
  22. Antidepressants: Which cause the fewest sexual side effects?
  23. Antidepressants and pregnancy
  24. Atypical antidepressants
  25. Atypical depression
  26. Back pain
  27. Bedtime routines: Not just for babies
  28. Binge-eating disorder
  29. Blood Basics
  30. Borderline personality disorder
  31. Breast-feeding and medications
  32. Dr. Wallace Video
  33. Parathyroid
  34. Can music help someone with Alzheimer's?
  35. Can zinc supplements help treat hidradenitis suppurativa?
  36. Can't sleep? Try daytime exercise
  37. Hidradenitis suppurativa wound care
  38. Celiac disease
  39. Celiac disease diet: How do I get enough grains?
  40. Chase away the winter blues
  41. Child abuse
  42. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy
  43. CJD - Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
  44. Clinical trials for hidradenitis suppurativa
  45. Coconut oil: Can it cure hypothyroidism?
  46. Coffee after dinner? Make it decaf
  47. Complete blood count (CBC)
  48. Complicated grief
  49. Compulsive sexual behavior
  50. Concussion
  51. Concussion in children
  52. Concussion Recovery
  53. Concussion Telemedicine
  54. Coping with the stress of hidradenitis suppurativa
  55. Coping with the emotional ups and downs of psoriatic arthritis
  56. COVID-19 and your mental health
  57. Creating a hidradenitis suppurativa care team
  58. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
  59. Cushing syndrome
  60. Cyclothymia (cyclothymic disorder)
  61. Delirium
  62. Depression and anxiety: Can I have both?
  63. Depression, anxiety and exercise
  64. Depression: Diagnosis is key
  65. Depression during pregnancy
  66. Depression in women: Understanding the gender gap
  67. Depression (major depressive disorder)
  68. Depression: Provide support, encouragement
  69. Depression: Supporting a family member or friend
  70. Diabetes and depression: Coping with the two conditions
  71. Diagnosing Alzheimer's
  72. Dissociative disorders
  73. Vitamin C and mood
  74. Drug addiction (substance use disorder)
  75. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  76. Fatigue
  77. Fibromyalgia
  78. Fibromyalgia and acupuncture
  79. Fibromyalgia: Linked to other health problems?
  80. Fibromyalgia and Neurontin
  81. Fibromyalgia or not?
  82. HABIT program orientation
  83. Hangovers
  84. Hashimoto's disease
  85. Headache
  86. Hidradenitis suppurativa
  87. Hidradenitis suppurativa and biologics: Get the facts
  88. Hidradenitis suppurativa and diet: What's recommended?
  89. Hidradenitis suppurativa and sleep: How to get more zzz's
  90. Hidradenitis suppurativa: Tips for weight-loss success
  91. Hidradenitis suppurativa: What is it?
  92. Hidradenitis suppurativa: When does it appear?
  93. Hidradenitis suppurativa: Where can I find support?
  94. How opioid addiction occurs
  95. How to tell if a loved one is abusing opioids
  96. Hyperparathyroidism
  97. Hypoparathyroidism
  98. Hypothyroidism: Can calcium supplements interfere with treatment?
  99. Hypothyroidism diet
  100. Hypothyroidism and joint pain?
  101. Hypothyroidism: Should I take iodine supplements?
  102. Hypothyroidism symptoms: Can hypothyroidism cause eye problems?
  103. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
  104. Insomnia
  105. Insomnia: How do I stay asleep?
  106. Insomnia treatment: Cognitive behavioral therapy instead of sleeping pills
  107. Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction
  108. Is depression a factor in rheumatoid arthritis?
  109. Is fibromyalgia hereditary?
  110. Is the definition of Alzheimer's disease changing?
  111. Kratom for opioid withdrawal
  112. Lack of sleep: Can it make you sick?
  113. Living better with hidradenitis suppurativa
  114. Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  115. Male depression: Understanding the issues
  116. Managing Headaches
  117. Managing hidradenitis suppurativa: Early treatment is crucial
  118. Hidradenitis suppurativa-related health risks
  119. MAOIs and diet: Is it necessary to restrict tyramine?
  120. Marijuana and depression
  121. Mayo Clinic Minute: 3 tips to reduce your risk of Alzheimer's disease
  122. Mayo Clinic Minute: Alzheimer's disease risk and lifestyle
  123. Mayo Clinic Minute New definition of Alzheimer's changes
  124. Mayo Clinic Minute: Prevent migraines with magnetic stimulation
  125. Mayo Clinic Minute: Restless legs syndrome in kids
  126. Mayo Clinic Minute Weathering migraines
  127. Mayo Clinic Minute: Women and Alzheimer's Disease
  128. Medication overuse headaches
  129. Meditation
  130. Mediterranean diet recipes
  131. Memory loss: When to seek help
  132. Mental health: Overcoming the stigma of mental illness
  133. Mental health providers: Tips on finding one
  134. Mental health
  135. Mental illness
  136. Migraine
  137. Migraine medications and antidepressants
  138. Migraine treatment: Can antidepressants help?
  139. Infographic: Migraine Treatments: Botox & Nerve Blocking
  140. Migraines and gastrointestinal problems: Is there a link?
  141. Migraines and Vertigo
  142. Migraines: Are they triggered by weather changes?
  143. Alleviating migraine pain
  144. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI)
  145. Mindfulness exercises
  146. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
  147. Natural remedies for depression: Are they effective?
  148. Nervous breakdown: What does it mean?
  149. New Alzheimers Research
  150. Nicotine dependence
  151. Not tired? Don't go to bed
  152. Occipital nerve stimulation: Effective migraine treatment?
  153. Ocular migraine: When to seek help
  154. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
  155. Pain and depression: Is there a link?
  156. Pancreatic cancer
  157. Infographic: Pancreatic Cancer: Minimally Invasive Surgery
  158. Pancreatic Cancer Survivor
  159. Infographic: Pancreatic Cancers-Whipple
  160. Perimenopause
  161. Pet therapy
  162. Pituitary tumors
  163. Polymyalgia rheumatica
  164. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  165. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  166. Prescription drug abuse
  167. Prescription sleeping pills: What's right for you?
  168. Progressive supranuclear palsy
  169. Psychotherapy
  170. Reducing the discomfort of hidradenitis suppurativa: Self-care tips
  171. Restless legs syndrome
  172. Salt craving: A symptom of Addison's disease?
  173. Savella may help fatigue
  174. Schizoaffective disorder
  175. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
  176. Seasonal affective disorder treatment: Choosing a light box
  177. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  178. Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)
  179. Skip booze for better sleep
  180. Sleep disorders
  181. Sleep tips
  182. Soy: Does it worsen hypothyroidism?
  183. Staying active with hidradenitis suppurativa
  184. Stop your next migraine before it starts
  185. Stress symptoms
  186. Sundowning: Late-day confusion
  187. Support groups
  188. Surgery for hidradenitis suppurativa
  189. Symptom Checker
  190. Tapering off opioids: When and how
  191. Tinnitus and antidepressants
  192. Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  193. Traumatic brain injury
  194. Treating hidradenitis suppurativa: Explore your options
  195. Treating hidradenitis suppurativa with antibiotics and hormones
  196. Treatment-resistant depression
  197. Tricyclic antidepressants and tetracyclic antidepressants
  198. Unexplained weight loss
  199. Vagus nerve stimulation
  200. Valerian: A safe and effective herbal sleep aid?
  201. Vascular dementia
  202. Video: Alzheimer's drug shows early promise
  203. Video: Vagus nerve stimulation
  204. Vitamin B-12 and depression
  205. Vitamin D: Can it prevent Alzheimer's & dementia?
  206. What are opioids and why are they dangerous?
  207. What are the signs and symptoms of hidradenitis suppurativa?
  208. What is reflexology?
  209. Wilson's disease
  210. Wilson's syndrome: An accepted medical diagnosis?
  211. Young-onset Alzheimer's