ما المقصود بالضغط النبضي؟ ما مدى أهمية الضغط النبضي على صحتك الإجمالية؟

إجابة من شيلدون جي شيبس، (دكتور في الطب)

تُقدَّم قراءات ضغط الدم في رقمين. الرقم العلوي هو الحد الأقصى للضغط الذي يبذله القلب عند الخفقان (الضغط الانقباضي) والرقم السفلي هو مقدار الضغط في شرايينك بين الخفقات (الضغط الانبساطي).

يُسمَّى الفارق العددي بين ضغط الدم الانقباضي والانبساطي بالضغط النبضي. على سبيل المثال، إذا كان ضغط الدم عند الراحة 120/80 مليمترات من الزئبق (مم زئبقي)، فإن ضغطك النبضي هو 40.

في حالة البالغين الذين تزيد أعمارهم عن 60 عامًا، من الممكن أن يكون الضغط النبضي الذي يبلغ أكثر من 60 منبئًا مفيدًا للنوبات القلبية أو مرض قلبي وعائي آخر، ويكون هذا الأمر صحيحًا لا سيما عند الرجال.

في بعض الحالات، قد يشير الضغط النبضي المنخفض (أقل من 40) إلى ضعف وظيفة القلب. قد يعكس الضغط النبضي المرتفع (أكثر من 60) وجود صمامات قلب مسربة (قلس الصمامات)، ويكون ذلك عادةً بسبب أضرار ذات صلة بالعمر في التمدد الأورطي.

إلا أنه ينبغي أخذ الضغط الانقباضي والانبساطي في الاعتبار مع قيم الضغط النبضي. يقتضي الارتفاع في القيم الانقباضية والانبساطية وجود مخاطر أكثر ارتفاعًا من الحالة التي تكون فيها القيم منخفضة مع الضغط النبضي نفسه: تشير القيمة التي تبلغ 160/120 مليمترات من الزئبق (مم زئبقي) إلى مخاطر أعلى من القيمة التي تبلغ 110/70 مم زئبقي على الرغم من أن الضغط النبضي في كل من القيمتين يبلغ 40.

السبب الأكثر أهمية للضغط النبضي المرتفع هو تيبس الأورطي، الشريان الأكبر في الجسم. قد يكون سبب التيبس هو ارتفاع ضغط الدم أو الترسبات الدهنية التي تضر بجدار الشرايين، مما يتركها أقل مرونة (التصلب العصيدي). كلما كان الضغط النبضي لديك أكبر، كانت الأوعية أكثر تيبسًا وضررًا مما يُعتقَّد.

من الممكن أن تزيد حالات أخرى — تشمل عوز الحديد الحاد (الأنيميا) وفرط الدرق (فرط الدرقية) — من الضغط النبضي كذلك.

عادةً ما يقلِّل علاج ارتفاع ضغط الدم من الضغط النبضي، على الرغم من تنوع آثار الأدوية المختلفة.

04/09/2020 See more Expert Answers

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