موسعات الأوعية.

تعالج هذه الأدوية مجموعة متنوعة من الحالات، ومنها ارتفاع ضغط الدم.

من إعداد فريق مايو كلينك

موسعات الأوعية الدموية هي أدوية تساعد على فتح (توسيع) الأوعية الدموية. وهي تؤثر على العضلات الموجودة في جدران الشرايين والأوردة؛ مما يقي العضلات من الشد وجدران الشرايين من التضيُّق.

نتيجةً لذلك، يتدفق الدم بسهولة أكبر خلال الأوعية. ولا يحتاج القلب إلى ضخ الدم بالقوة نفسها، فينخفض ضغط الدم.

تعمل بعض العقاقير المستخدمة لعلاج ارتفاع ضغط الدم، مثل حاصرات قنوات الكالسيوم، أيضًا على توسيع الأوعية الدموية. ولكن موسعات الأوعية الدموية التي تؤثر مباشرة على الأوعية الدموية هي هيدرالازين ومينوكسيديل.

استخدام موسعات الأوعية الدموية

يصف الأطباء موسعات الأوعية الدموية للوقاية من الأعراض أو علاجها أو تخفيفها في حالات مختلفة، كالتالي:

  • ارتفاع ضغط الدم
  • ارتفاع ضغط الدم أثناء الحمل أو عند الأطفال (مقدمات الارتعاج أو الارتعاج)
  • فشل القلب
  • ارتفاع ضغط الدم الذي يؤثر على شرايين الرئتين (ارتفاع ضغط الدم الرئوي)

الآثار الجانبية والتحذيرات

موسعات الأوعية الدموية المباشرة هي أدوية قوية لا تُستخدم في العادة إلا في حالة عدم قدرة الأدوية الأخرى على التحكم في ضغط الدم بدرجة كافية.

ولهذه الأدوية عدد من الآثار الجانبية، يتطلب بعضها أخذ أدوية أخرى لعلاجها.

ومن هذه الآثار الجانبية ما يلي:

  • ضربات القلب السريعة (تسرع القلب)
  • خفقان القلب
  • احتباس السوائل (الوذمة)
  • الغثيان
  • القيء
  • الصداع
  • نمو الشعر المفرط
  • ألم المفاصل
  • ألم الصدر
09/12/2021 انظر المزيد من التفاصيل الشاملة

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