ما نوبة ارتفاع ضغط الدم؟ إذا لاحظتُ ارتفاعًا في ضغط الدم لدي، فما الذي ينبغي عليّ فعله؟

إجابة من شيلدون جي شيبس، (دكتور في الطب)

نوبة ارتفاع ضغط الدم عبارة عن ارتفاع حاد في ضغط الدم يمكن أن يؤدي إلى سكتة دماغية. فالارتفاع الشديد في ضغط الدم — أي عندما تكون القراءة الفوقية (الضغط الانقباضي) 180 ميلليمتر زئبقي (ملم زئبق) أو أعلى أو تكون القراءة التحتية (الضغط الانبساطي) 120 ملم زئبق أو أعلى — يتلف الأوعية الدموية. ومن ثم تلتهب الأوعية الدموية وقد تُسرِّب السوائل أو الدم. ونتيجة لذلك، قد لا يستطيع القلب ضخ الدم بفاعلية.

تتضمن أسباب نوبات ارتفاع ضغط الدم الطارئة ما يلي:

  • نسيان تناول دواء ضغط الدم
  • السكتة الدماغية
  • النوبة القلبية
  • فشل القلب
  • الفشل الكلوي
  • تمزق الشريان الرئيسي في الجسم (الشريان الأورطي)
  • التفاعل بين الأدوية
  • التشنجات خلال فترة الحمل (تسمم الحمل)

تنقسم نوبات ارتفاع ضغط الدم إلى قسمين: نوبة ملحة ونوبة طارئة. في نوبة ارتفاع ضغط الدم الملحة، يرتفع ضغط الدم لأقصى درجة، ولكن لا يشك الطبيب في إصابتك بأي تلف في الأعضاء.

في نوبة ارتفاع ضغط الدم الطارئة، يرتفع ضغط الدم لأقصى درجة ويسبب تلفًا في الأعضاء. يمكن لنوبة ارتفاع ضغط الدم الطارئة أن يصحبها مضاعفات مهددة للحياة.

قد تتضمن علامات نوبة ارتفاع ضغط الدم وأعراضها التي يمكن أن تهدد الحياة ما يلي:

  • ألم شديد بالصدر
  • صداع شديد، يصحبه ارتباك وتشوش في الرؤية
  • الغثيان والقيء
  • القلق الشديد
  • ضيق التنفس
  • نوبات الصرع
  • عدم الاستجابة

إذا كنت تعاني من ارتفاع حاد في ضغط الدم، فالتمس العناية الطبية الفورية. يمكن أن يتضمن علاج نوبة ارتفاع ضغط الدم الحجز في المستشفى لتلقي العلاج باستخدام الأدوية الفموية والوريدية.

26/01/2019 See more Expert Answers

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