什么是COVID-19,如何自我保护?

回答 Pritish K. Tosh, M.D.

中国最近暴发了一场波及全球的疾病,其根源经确认是一种名为急性重症呼吸综合征冠状病毒2 (SARS-CoV-2)的新型病毒。这种疾病称为新型冠状病毒肺炎(COVID-19)。

该病毒属于一种冠状病毒,而冠状病毒是一个大型病毒家族,可引起普通感冒乃至急性重症呼吸综合征(SARS)和中东呼吸系统综合征(MERS)等疾病。

由于是新出现的病毒,人们对这种病毒的了解还不多。包括世界卫生组织(WHO)和美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC)在内的各大公共卫生组织正在对其进行调查。请访问他们的网站了解最新消息。

这种新型冠状病毒似乎能在人与人之间传播。还可能通过病毒感染者咳嗽或打喷嚏时释放的呼吸道飞沫进行传播。人们尚未完全弄清楚这种病毒的传染性。

COVID-19的症状从轻微到严重不等,包括发热、咳嗽和气短。感染者在暴露后的2至14天内可能出现症状。目前还没有冠状病毒的疫苗。

WHOCDC建议采取以下常规预防措施避免呼吸道病毒感染:

  • 经常使用肥皂和清水或者含酒精的洗手液洗手。
  • 咳嗽或打喷嚏时用手肘或纸巾遮盖口鼻。
  • 避免用脏手触摸眼睛和口鼻。
  • 避免与任何病患发生密切接触。
  • 对经常触摸的表面进行清洁。
  • 患病期间避免前往工作场所、学校以及公共场所。

CDC不建议健康的人戴上口罩来保护自己免于感染包括COVID-19在内呼吸道疾病。只有医护人员告诉您要戴口罩时,才戴上口罩。

除上述外,WHO建议采取以下措施:

  • 避免食用生的或未煮熟的肉类或动物内脏。
  • 在近期曾发生新型冠状病毒病例的地区,前往生鲜市场时应避免接触活体动物以及它们可能曾接触过的表面。

如果您正计划出国旅行,请先查阅CDCWHO网站了解最新消息和建议。此外,还要查找与您计划旅行的地方相关的健康建议。

With

Pritish K. Tosh, M.D.

July 03, 2020 See more Expert Answers

也可查阅

  1. Can COVID-19 (coronavirus) spread through food, water, surfaces and pets?
  2. COVID-19 and vitamin D
  3. Cancer treatment delays due to COVID-19
  4. Safe cancer treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic
  5. Convalescent plasma therapy
  6. Coronavirus safety tips for going out
  7. COVID-19
  8. Coronavirus grief
  9. Coronavirus travel advice
  10. Coronavirus vs. flu: Similarities and differences
  11. Cough
  12. Herd immunity and coronavirus
  13. COVID-19 and high blood pressure
  14. COVID-19 and pets
  15. COVID-19 and the risk of suicide
  16. COVID-19 and your mental health
  17. COVID-19 antibody testing
  18. COVID-19 (coronavirus) drugs: Are there any that work?
  19. COVID-19 (coronavirus) in babies and children
  20. Long-term effects of COVID-19
  21. COVID-19 (coronavirus) stigma: What it is and how to reduce it
  22. COVID-19 (coronavirus) vaccine
  23. COVID-19 tests
  24. COVID-19: How much protection do face masks offer?
  25. Coping with unemployment caused by COVID-19
  26. COVID-19 (coronavirus): Quarantine, self-isolation and social distancing
  27. COVID-19: Social distancing, contact tracing are critical
  28. COVID-19: Who's at higher risk of serious symptoms?
  29. Debunking coronavirus myths
  30. Diarrhea
  31. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)
  32. Surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic
  33. Fever
  34. Fever: First aid
  35. Fever treatment: Quick guide to treating a fever
  36. Getting safe emergency care during the COVID-19 pandemic
  37. Kids, loneliness and COVID-19
  38. Honey: An effective cough remedy?
  39. How do COVID-19 antibody tests differ from diagnostic tests?
  40. How to take your pulse
  41. How to measure your respiratory rate
  42. How to safely go to your doctor during the COVID-19 pandemic
  43. How to take your temperature
  44. How to talk to your kids about COVID-19
  45. Loss of smell
  46. Mayo Clinic Minute: You're washing your hands all wrong
  47. Mayo Clinic Minute: How dirty are common surfaces?
  48. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)
  49. Nausea and vomiting
  50. Neurosurgery during the COVID-19 pandemic
  51. Parenting and special needs during a pandemic
  52. Pregnancy and COVID-19
  53. Coronavirus infection by race
  54. Red eye
  55. Routine cancer screening during coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic
  56. Safe outdoor activities during the COVID-19 pandemic
  57. Safety tips for returning to school during COVID-19
  58. Sex and COVID-19
  59. 呼吸短促
  60. Skin care tips during a pandemic
  61. Stay healthy during the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic
  62. Stay on track with medications during a pandemic
  63. Telemedicine online doctor visits
  64. Teleworking during the coronavirus
  65. Thermometers: Understand the options
  66. Video: Travel safely for medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic
  67. Treating COVID-19 at home
  68. Unusual symptoms of coronavirus
  69. Watery eyes
  70. Fight coronavirus transmission at home
  71. Contact tracing and COVID-19: What is it and how does it work?
  72. What's causing my infant's diarrhea?