概述

儿童多系统炎症综合征(MIS-C)是一种严重疾病,似乎与 2019 冠状病毒病(COVID-19)相关。大多数感染了 COVID-19 病毒的儿童只有轻度的疾病。但是在继续发展为 MIS-C 的儿童中,某些器官和组织(例如心脏、肺、血管、肾脏、消化系统、大脑、皮肤或眼睛)会严重发炎。体征和症状取决于身体的受影响部位。

由于人们对 MIS-C 知之甚少,包括其病因和风险因素均不了解,因此将其认为是一种综合征,表示它是一组症状和体征,而不是一种疾病。识别并研究更多患有 MIS-C 的儿童可能有助于最终找到原因。美国疾病控制与预防中心和美国国立卫生研究院正在与全国各地的医生和研究人员合作,以了解有关 MIS-C 的风险因素的更多信息,共享数据并改善 MIS-C 的诊断和治疗。

MIS-C 很罕见,大多数患有 MIS-C 的儿童在经过医治后最终都会康复。但是有些儿童的状况会迅速恶化,以致危及生命。

关于这种新出现的炎症综合征还有待深入研究。如果您的孩子有任何体征或症状,请迅速寻求帮助。

症状

儿童多系统炎症综合征(MIS-C)的体征和症状如下所示,但并非所有儿童都有相同症状。

  • 发热持续 24 小时或更长时间
  • 呕吐
  • 腹泻
  • 胃痛
  • 皮疹
  • 感觉异常疲惫
  • 心跳加快
  • 呼吸急促
  • 红眼
  • 嘴唇和舌头发红或肿胀
  • 手脚发红或肿胀
  • 头痛、头晕或头昏
  • 淋巴结肿大

MIS-C 的急救警示体征

  • 重度胃疼
  • 呼吸困难
  • 嘴唇或面部发青
  • 新发意识模糊
  • 无法醒来或保持清醒

何时就诊

如果您的孩子出现上面列出的任何紧急预警征兆,或出现其他严重疾病的体征和症状,请立即就医。带孩子去最近的急诊室或拨打 911 或您当地的急救电话。

如果您的孩子病情不严重,但仍显示 MIS-C 的其他体征或症状,请立即与您孩子的医生联系以寻求建议。医生可能需要进行检查,例如血液检测或胸部、心脏或腹部的影像学检查,以检查炎症区域和 MIS-C 的其他体征。

病因

MIS-C 的确切病因尚不清楚,但似乎是与 COVID-19 有关的过度免疫反应。许多 MIS-C 儿童患者的抗体检测结果呈阳性。这意味着他们最近感染了 COVID-19 病毒。有些人可能已经感染了病毒。

风险因素

在美国,与其他种族和族裔的儿童相比,经诊断患儿童多系统炎症综合征 (MIS-C) 的黑人和拉丁裔儿童更多。需要通过研究来确定为什么 MIS-C 对这些孩子的影响更大。比如,原因可能包括在获取健康信息和服务方面存在差异,也可能存在与基因有关的风险。

多数 MIS-C 患儿在 3 到 12 岁之间,平均年龄为 8 岁。也有一些发生在较大儿童和婴儿中的病例。

并发症

许多专科医生认为 MIS-CCOVID-19 的并发症。如果没有早期诊断及适当的管理和治疗,MIS-C 可能导致重要器官(如心脏、肺或肾脏)出现严重问题。在罕见病例中,MIS-C 可能导致永久性损伤,甚至死亡。

预防

防止孩子患 MIS-C 的最好方法是避免接触 COVID-19 病毒,并且也要教您的孩子如何避免接触该病毒。遵照美国疾病控制与预防中心的准则:

  • 保持双手清洁。经常用肥皂和水洗手至少 20 秒。如果没有肥皂和清水可用,请用含至少 60% 酒精的洗手液。
  • 避免与生病的人接触。尤其要避免接触咳嗽、打喷嚏或其他迹象表明他们可能生病并传染的人群。
  • 保持社交距离。这表示您和您的孩子出门在外时应与他人保持至少 2 米(6 英尺)的距离。
  • 在公共场所佩戴布面口罩。如果很难保持社交距离,您和您的孩子(如果孩子至少 2 岁)都应该戴上口罩,遮住鼻子和嘴巴。
  • 避免触摸眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴。鼓励您的孩子听您的指挥,避免用手触摸其脸部。
  • 打喷嚏或咳嗽时,用纸巾或手肘遮住嘴巴。打喷嚏或咳嗽时,您和您的孩子应该练习遮住嘴巴,以免传播细菌。
  • 对每天频繁接触的表面进行清洁和消毒。包括您家中的区域,例如门把手、电灯开关、遥控器、把手、台面、桌子、椅子、书桌、键盘、水龙头、水槽和卫生间。
  • 根据需要洗衣服和其他物品。遵循制造商的说明,使用洗衣机上温度最高的适当水位。别忘了可洗的毛绒玩具。
Nov. 12, 2021
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儿童多系统炎症综合征(MIS-C)和 COVID-19