Abdominal pain has many potential causes. The most common causes — such as gas pains, indigestion or a pulled muscle — usually aren't serious. Other conditions may require more-urgent medical attention.

While the location and pattern of abdominal pain can provide important clues, its time course is particularly useful when determining its cause.

Acute abdominal pain develops, and often resolves, over a few hours to a few days. Chronic abdominal pain may be intermittent, or episodic, meaning it may come and go. This type of pain may be present for weeks to months, or even years. Some conditions cause progressive pain, which steadily gets worse over time.

Acute

The various conditions that cause acute abdominal pain are usually accompanied by other symptoms and develop over hours to days. Causes can range from minor conditions that resolve without any treatment to serious medical emergencies, including:

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  2. Appendicitis
  3. Cholangitis (bile duct inflammation)
  4. Cholecystitis (gallbladder inflammation)
  5. Cystitis (bladder inflammation)
  6. Diabetic ketoacidosis (high levels of ketones in the blood)
  7. Diverticulitis
  8. Duodenitis (inflammation of the initial portion of the small intestine)
  9. Ectopic pregnancy
  10. Fecal impaction (hardened stool that can't be eliminated)
  11. Heart attack
  12. Injury
  13. Intussusception (in children)
  14. Kidney infection
  15. Kidney stones
  16. Liver abscess (pus-filled pocket in the liver)
  17. Mesenteric ischemia (decreased blood flow to the intestines)
  18. Mesenteric lymphadenitis (swollen lymph nodes in the folds of membrane that hold the abdominal organs in place)
  19. Mesenteric thrombosis (blood clot in a vein carrying blood away from your intestines)
  20. Pancreatitis (pancreas inflammation)
  21. Pericarditis (inflammation of the tissue around the heart)
  22. Peritonitis (infection of the abdominal lining)
  23. Pleurisy (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the lungs)
  24. Pneumonia
  25. Pulmonary infarction (loss of blood flow to the lungs)
  26. Ruptured spleen
  27. Salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes)
  28. Shingles
  29. Spleen infection
  30. Splenic abscess (pus-filled pocket in the spleen)
  31. Torn colon
  32. Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  33. Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)

Chronic (intermittent, or episodic)

The specific cause of chronic abdominal pain is often difficult to determine. Symptoms may range from mild to severe, coming and going but not necessarily worsening over time. Conditions that may cause chronic abdominal pain include:

  1. Angina (reduced blood flow to the heart)
  2. Celiac disease
  3. Endometriosis
  4. Gallstones
  5. Gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining)
  6. GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
  7. Hiatal hernia
  8. Inguinal hernia
  9. Enlarged spleen (splenomegaly)
  10. Mittelschmerz (pain associated with ovulation)
  11. Nonulcer stomach pain
  12. Ovarian cysts
  13. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) — infection of the female reproductive organs
  14. Peptic ulcer
  15. Sickle cell anemia
  16. Strained or pulled abdominal muscle
  17. Ulcerative colitis

Progressive

Abdominal pain that steadily worsens over time, often accompanied by the development of other symptoms, is usually serious. Causes of progressive abdominal pain include:

  1. Cancer
  2. Crohn's disease
  3. Enlarged spleen (splenomegaly)
  4. Gallbladder cancer
  5. Hepatitis (liver inflammation)
  6. Kidney cancer
  7. Lead poisoning
  8. Liver cancer
  9. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  10. Pancreatic cancer
  11. Stomach cancer
  12. Tubo-ovarian abscess (pus-filled pocket involving a fallopian tube and an ovary)
  13. Uremia (buildup of waste products in your blood)

Causes shown here are commonly associated with this symptom. Work with your doctor or other health care professional for an accurate diagnosis.

Oct. 25, 2016