Overview

Indigestion — also called dyspepsia or an upset stomach — is discomfort in your upper abdomen. Indigestion describes certain symptoms, such as abdominal pain and a feeling of fullness soon after you start eating, rather than a specific disease. Indigestion can also be a symptom of various digestive diseases.

Although indigestion is common, each person may experience indigestion in a slightly different way. Symptoms of indigestion may be felt occasionally or as often as daily.

Indigestion may often be relieved with lifestyle changes and medications.

Symptoms

If you have indigestion, you may have:

  • Early fullness during a meal. You haven't eaten much of your meal, but you already feel full and may not be able to finish eating.
  • Uncomfortable fullness after a meal. The feeling of fullness lasts longer than it should.
  • Discomfort in the upper abdomen. You feel a mild to severe pain in the area between the bottom of your breastbone and your bellybutton.
  • Burning in the upper abdomen. You feel an uncomfortable heat or burning sensation between the bottom of your breastbone and your bellybutton.
  • Bloating in the upper abdomen. You feel an uncomfortable sensation of tightness in your upper abdomen.
  • Nausea. You feel as if you want to vomit.

Less frequent signs and symptoms include vomiting and belching.

Sometimes people with indigestion also experience heartburn. Heartburn is a pain or burning feeling in the center of your chest that may radiate into your neck or back during or after eating.

When to see a doctor

Mild indigestion is usually nothing to worry about. Consult your doctor if discomfort persists for more than two weeks.

Contact your doctor right away if pain is severe or accompanied by:

  • Unintentional weight loss or loss of appetite
  • Repeated vomiting or vomiting with blood
  • Black, tarry stools
  • Trouble swallowing that gets progressively worse
  • Fatigue or weakness, which may indicate anemia

Seek immediate medical attention if you have:

  • Shortness of breath, sweating, or chest pain radiating to the jaw, neck or arm
  • Chest pain on exertion or with stress

Causes

Indigestion has many possible causes. Often, indigestion is related to lifestyle and may be triggered by food, drink or medication. Common causes of indigestion include:

  • Overeating or eating too quickly
  • Fatty, greasy or spicy foods
  • Too much caffeine, alcohol, chocolate or carbonated beverages
  • Smoking
  • Anxiety
  • Certain antibiotics, pain relievers and iron supplements

A condition known as functional or nonulcer dyspepsia, which is related to irritable bowel syndrome, is a very common cause of indigestion.

Sometimes indigestion is caused by other conditions, including:

  • Inflammation of the stomach (gastritis)
  • Peptic ulcers
  • Celiac disease
  • Gallstones
  • Constipation
  • Pancreas inflammation (pancreatitis)
  • Stomach cancer
  • Intestinal blockage
  • Reduced blood flow in the intestine (intestinal ischemia)
  • Diabetes
  • Thyroid disease
  • Pregnancy

Complications

Although indigestion doesn't usually have serious complications, it can affect your quality of life by making you feel uncomfortable and causing you to eat less. You might miss work or school because of your symptoms.

Indigestion care at Mayo Clinic

July 15, 2021
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  2. Goldman L, et al., eds. Functional gastrointestinal disorders: Irritable bowel syndrome, dyspepsia, esophageal chest pain, and heartburn. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Elsevier; 2020. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 21, 2021.
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  4. Dyspepsia. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/symptoms-of-gastrointestinal-disorders/dyspepsia. Accessed April 20, 2021.
  5. Wilkinson JM, et al. Gas, bloating, and belching: Approach to evaluation and management. American Family Physician. 2019; https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p301.html. Accessed May 3, 2021.
  6. Zhang J, et al. Efficacy comparison of different acupuncture treatments for functional dyspepsia: A systematic review with network meta-analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020; doi:10.1155/2020/3872919.
  7. Kim YS, et al. Herbal therapies in functional gastrointestinal disorders: A narrative review and clinical application. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2020; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00601.
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