Overview

Diverticula are small, bulging pouches that can form in the lining of your digestive system. They are found most often in the lower part of the large intestine (colon). Diverticula are common, especially after age 40, and seldom cause problems.

Sometimes, however, one or more of the pouches become inflamed or infected. That condition is known as diverticulitis (die-vur-tik-yoo-LIE-tis). Diverticulitis can cause severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea and a marked change in your bowel habits.

Mild diverticulitis can be treated with rest, changes in your diet and antibiotics. Severe or recurring diverticulitis may require surgery.

Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of diverticulitis include:

  • Pain, which may be constant and persist for several days. Pain is usually felt in the lower left side of the abdomen, but may occur on the right, especially in people of Asian descent.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Fever.
  • Abdominal tenderness.
  • Constipation or, less commonly, diarrhea.

Causes

Diverticula usually develop when naturally weak places in your colon give way under pressure. This causes marble-sized pouches to protrude through the colon wall.

Diverticulitis occurs when diverticula tear, resulting in inflammation or infection or both.

Risk factors

Several factors may increase your risk of developing diverticulitis:

  • Aging. The incidence of diverticulitis increases with age.
  • Obesity. Being seriously overweight increases your odds of developing diverticulitis. Morbid obesity may increase your risk of needing more-invasive treatments for diverticulitis.
  • Smoking. People who smoke cigarettes are more likely than nonsmokers to experience diverticulitis.
  • Lack of exercise. Vigorous exercise appears to lower your risk of diverticulitis.
  • Diet high in animal fat and low in fiber, although the role of low fiber alone isn't clear.
  • Certain medications. Several drugs are associated with an increased risk of diverticulitis, including steroids, opiates and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen (Aleve).

Complications

About 25 percent of people with acute diverticulitis develop complications, which may include:

  • An abscess, which occurs when pus collects in the pouch.
  • A blockage in your colon or small intestine caused by scarring.
  • An abnormal passageway (fistula) between sections of bowel or the bowel and bladder.
  • Peritonitis, which can occur if the infected or inflamed pouch ruptures, spilling intestinal contents into your abdominal cavity. Peritonitis is a medical emergency and requires immediate care.

Diverticulitis care at Mayo Clinic

Aug. 07, 2014
References
  1. Young Fadok T, et al. Colonic diverticulosis and diverticular disease: Epidemiology, risk factors, and pathogenesis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 7, 2014.
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  3. Pemberton JH, et al. Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of acute diverticulitis in adults. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 7, 2014.
  4. Bailey MB, et al. Morbid obesity and diverticulitis: Results from the ACS NSQIP dataset. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2013;217:834.
  5. Young Fadok T, et al. Treatment of acute diverticulitis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 7, 2014.
  6. AskMayoExpert. What is the initial therapy for uncomplicated diverticulitis? Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2012.
  7. Picco MF (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan.17, 2014.
  8. Boostrom SY, et al. Uncomplicated diverticulitis, more complicated than we thought. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2012;16:1744.
  9. Diverticular Disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/diverticulosis/index.aspx. Accessed Jan. 7, 2014.