概述

冠状病毒是一大类病毒家族的总称,可引起包括普通感冒、严重急性呼吸道综合征(SARS)和中东呼吸综合征(MERS)在内的多种疾病。2019 年发现了一种新型冠状病毒,这种病毒是导致中国暴发疫情的罪魁祸首。

这种病毒被命名为严重急性呼吸道综合征冠状病毒 2 型(SARS-CoV-2)。这种病毒导致的疾病被称为 2019 冠状病毒病(COVID-19)。世界卫生组织(WHO)于 2020 年 3 月宣布 COVID-19 疫情为大流行。

包括美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC)和世界卫生组织(WHO)在内的公共卫生组织正在监测疫情,并在其网站上发布最新消息。这些组织还就如何预防和治疗这种疾病发布了相关建议。

症状

2019 冠状病毒病 (COVID-19) 的症状和体征可能在感染 2 到 14 天后出现。感染病毒后和出现症状前的这段时间称为潜伏期。常见的症状和体征包括:

  • 发热
  • 咳嗽
  • 疲倦

COVID-19 的早期症状可能包括味觉或嗅觉丧失。

其他症状可能包括:

  • 气短或呼吸困难
  • 肌肉酸痛
  • 寒战
  • 咽喉疼痛
  • 流鼻涕
  • 头痛
  • 胸部疼痛
  • 红眼病(结膜炎)

此表并非完整的症状列表。其他不太常见的症状也有报道,如皮疹、恶心、呕吐和腹泻。儿童的症状与成人相似,一般病情轻微。

COVID-19 症状的严重程度从非常轻度到重度不等。有些人可能只有少许症状,有些人可能根本没有症状。症状开始一周后,有些人的症状可能加重,例如气短和感染性肺炎加重。

年长者出现严重 COVID-19 病症的风险更高,而且风险随年龄增加。身患慢性疾病的人出现严重病症的可能性也更高。如身患以下医学疾病,会增加患 COVID-19严重病症的风险:

  • 心力衰竭、冠状动脉疾病或心肌病等严重心脏病
  • 癌症
  • 慢性阻塞性肺疾病 (COPD)
  • 2 型糖尿病
  • 肥胖症或严重肥胖症
  • 抽烟
  • 慢性肾病
  • 镰状细胞病
  • 实体器官移植导致的免疫系统低下

可能增加严重病症风险的其他疾病,例如:

  • 哮喘
  • 肝病
  • 超重
  • 囊性纤维化或肺纤维化等慢性肺病
  • 大脑和神经系统疾病
  • 骨髓移植、艾滋病毒或一些用药导致的免疫系统低下
  • 1 型糖尿病
  • 高血压

此表并非完整的症状列表。其他基础疾病可能会增加您患 COVID-19 的严重病症的风险。

2019 冠状病毒病自我评估工具

评估您的症状,确认您是否需要接受 2019 冠状病毒病 (COVID-19) 检测。

何时就诊

如果您出现 COVID-19 症状或者接触过 COVID-19 确诊患者,请立即联系医生或诊所获取医疗建议。就诊前,请向医护团队告知您的症状和可能的接触情况。

如果您出现紧急的 COVID-19 体征和症状,请立即就医。紧急体征和症状可能包括:

  • 呼吸困难
  • 持续的胸部疼痛或压迫感
  • 无法保持清醒
  • 新出现的意识混乱
  • 嘴唇或面部发青

如果您出现 COVID-19 的体征或症状,请联系医生或诊所获取指导。告诉医生您是否患有其他慢性疾病,例如心脏病或肺病。在疫情期间,确保最需要治疗的人能够得到医疗救治非常重要。

病因

新型冠状病毒(严重急性呼吸道综合征冠状病毒 2,即 SARS-CoV-2)感染可引起 2019 冠状病毒病 (COVID-19)。

导致 COVID-19 的病毒很容易在人与人之间传播,而且随着时间的推移,人们会发现更多的传播方式。数据显示,该病毒主要在密切接触者(约 6 英尺或 2 米内)之间进行人与人传播。病毒通过携带病毒的人咳嗽、打喷嚏或说话时释放的呼吸道飞沫传播。这些飞沫可以被吸入或落在附近人的口、鼻或眼睛中。

在某些情况下,COVID-19 病毒可通过暴露于小飞沫或气溶胶(在空气中停留数分钟或数小时)的人员传播——称为空气传播。目前还不清楚该病毒以这种方式传播的普遍程度。

如果一个人接触到带有病毒的表面或物体,然后触摸自己的口、鼻或眼睛,也会传播,但目前认为这并不是传播的主要途径。

已经发生了一些再次感染该病毒引起 COVID-19 的病例,但并不常见。

风险因素

2019 冠状病毒病 (COVID-19) 的风险因素可能包括:

  • COVID-19 患者发生密切接触(6 英尺或 2 米以内)
  • 感染者朝您咳嗽或打喷嚏

并发症

尽管大多数2019 冠状病毒病 (COVID-19) 患者的症状为轻到中度,但这种疾病在某些患者中会引起严重并发症并可能导致死亡。老年人或慢性病患者感染2019 冠状病毒病 (COVID-19) 后转为重症的风险更高。

并发症可能包括:

  • 感染性肺炎和呼吸困难
  • 多个器官衰竭
  • 心脏问题
  • 严重的肺部疾病,导致流经全身的血液含氧量降低,造成机体供氧不足(急性呼吸窘迫综合征)
  • 血凝块
  • 急性肾损伤
  • 其他病毒和细菌感染

预防

尽管目前还没有预防 2019 冠状病毒病的疫苗,但是您可以通过采取适当措施来降低感染风险。WHOCDC 针对避免接触导致 2019 冠状病毒病的病毒的预防措施,给出了以下建议:

  • 避免与任何生病或有症状的人密切接触(约 2 米或 6 英尺以内)。
  • 与其他人保持距离(约 6 英尺或 2 米以上)。如果您患重病的风险较高,这一点尤为重要。需要记住,有些 2019 冠状病毒病患者即使无症状或不知道自己患 2019 冠状病毒病,也可能将病毒传播给他人。
  • 经常用肥皂和水洗手至少 20 秒,或者使用酒精含量至少为 60% 的免洗洗手液。
  • 在难免会与他人密切接触的场所(比如超市),要佩戴布面口罩。如果有,可以使用外科口罩。N95 口罩应当留给医务人员使用。
  • 咳嗽或打喷嚏时,用手肘或纸巾遮住口鼻。扔掉用过的纸巾。立即洗手。
  • 避免触摸眼睛、鼻子和嘴巴。
  • 患病期间避免与他人共用餐具、水杯、毛巾、床上用品和其他日常用品。
  • 对高频接触的表面(例如门把手、电灯开关、电子产品和柜台)每天进行清洁和消毒。
  • 患病期间请留在家中,不要去上班、上学和前往公共场所,除非是去看病。还要避免乘坐公共交通工具、计程车和共享出行工具。

如果您患有慢性疾病并且有发生重症的高危因素,请咨询医生以了解其他自我防护方法。

旅行

如果您计划外出旅行,请先查看美国疾病控制与预防中心世界卫生组织的网站,了解最新情况和相关建议。准备好佩戴口罩并在公共场合保持良好的手部卫生习惯。如果您伴有会导致您更容易发生呼吸道感染和并发症的健康状况,您也要咨询医生。

Feb. 01, 2022
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