Vasodilators

These drugs treat a variety of conditions, including high blood pressure.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Vasodilators are medications that open (dilate) blood vessels. They affect the muscles in the walls of the arteries and veins, preventing the muscles from tightening and the walls from narrowing.

As a result, blood flows more easily through the vessels. The heart doesn't have to pump as hard, reducing blood pressure.

Some drugs used to treat hypertension, such as calcium channel blockers also dilate blood vessels. But the vasodilators that work directly on the vessel walls are hydralazine and minoxidil.

Uses for vasodilators

Doctors prescribe vasodilators to prevent, treat or improve symptoms in a variety of conditions, such as:

  • High blood pressure
  • High blood pressure during pregnancy or childbirth (preeclampsia or eclampsia)
  • Heart failure
  • High blood pressure that affects the arteries in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension)

Side effects and cautions

Direct vasodilators are strong medications that generally are used only when other medications haven't controlled blood pressure adequately.

These medications have a number of side effects, some of which require taking other medications to treat.

Side effects include:

  • Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
  • Heart palpitations
  • Fluid retention (edema)
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Excessive hair growth
  • Joint pain
  • Chest pain

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Sept. 25, 2021 See more In-depth

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