I've heard that sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) is linked to cervical cancer in women. Can HPV infection increase cancer risk in men, too?
Answer From James M. Steckelberg, M.D.
Yes, but the specific risks are different for men. HPV infection is very common, but it usually doesn't cause any signs or symptoms in either sex. Some types of HPV cause genital warts, however.
Often, the body's immune system eliminates the virus without treatment within about two years. But until the virus is gone, you can spread it to your sex partners.
Certain types of HPV, known as high-risk types, may cause persistent infection. These infections are the ones that can gradually turn into cancer. HPV can cause cancers of the vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and the back of the mouth and upper part of the throat (oropharynx).
Men who have HIV — the virus that causes AIDS — and men who have sex with other men have a higher risk of anal, penile and throat cancers associated with persistent HPV infection. Oropharyngeal cancers have been on the rise recently, especially in men.
Men can prevent the types of HPV that cause most genital warts and anal cancer by receiving an HPV vaccine. The HPV vaccines were originally approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a cervical cancer vaccine for girls and young women, and they're now approved for the prevention of anal, vulvar and vaginal cancers, too.
The vaccines are recommended for males ages 9 to 26. The best time to get the vaccines is before sexual activity begins. Although these vaccines are not yet approved for preventing HPV-related penile and oropharyngeal cancer, recent studies suggest that these vaccines may be effective for preventing these cancers as well.
You may also lower your risk of contracting HPV by using a condom every time you have sex, though you can still get an HPV infection in areas left exposed by the condom. So condom use isn't considered a substitute for HPV vaccination in those eligible for the vaccines.
June 26, 2018
See more Expert Answers
- HPV questions and answers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html. Accessed May 26, 2018.
- HPV and men — CDC fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv-and-men.htm. Accessed May 26, 2018.
- Ventimiglia E, et al. Human papillomavirus infection and vaccination in males. European Urology Focus. 2016;2:355.
- Hansen BT, et al. Long-term incidence trends of HPV-related cancers, and cases preventable by HPV vaccination: A registry-based study in Norway. BMJ Open. 2018;8:1. http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/8/2/e019005. Accessed May 26, 2018.
- HPV and cancer. National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/infectious-agents/hpv-fact-sheet. Accessed May 14, 2018.
- Oliver SE, et al. Risk factors for oral HPV infection among young men who have sex with men — 2 cities, United States, 2012-2014. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. In press. Accessed May 14, 2018.
- Haddad RI. Human papillomavirus associated head and neck cancer. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed May 14, 2018.
- Kidd LC, et al. Relationship between human papillomavirus and penile cancer — Implications for prevention and treatment. Translational Andrology and Urology. 2017;6:791.
- Bennett JE, et al., eds. Immunization. In: Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed May 29, 2018.
- Osazuwa-Peters N, et al. Not just a woman's business! Understanding men and women's knowledge of HPV, the HPV vaccine, and HPV-associated cancers. Preventive Medicine. 2017;99:299.