HPV vaccine: Who needs it, how it works
Who needs the HPV vaccine? How many doses? What about side effects? Get answers to these questions and more.By Mayo Clinic Staff
Most cervical cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection. Widespread immunization with the HPV vaccine could reduce the impact of cervical cancer worldwide. Here's what you need to know about the HPV vaccine.
What does the HPV vaccine do?
Various strains of HPV spread through sexual contact and are associated with most cases of cervical cancer. Gardasil 9 is an HPV vaccine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and can be used for both girls and boys.
This vaccine can prevent most cases of cervical cancer if given before a girl or woman is exposed to the virus. In addition, this vaccine can prevent vaginal and vulvar cancer in women, and can prevent genital warts and anal cancer in women and men.
In theory, vaccinating boys against the types of HPV associated with cervical cancer might also help protect girls from the virus by possibly decreasing transmission. Certain types of HPV have also been linked to cancers in the mouth and throat, so the HPV vaccine likely offers some protection against these cancers, too.
Who is the HPV vaccine for and when should it be given?
The HPV vaccine is routinely recommended for girls and boys ages 11 or 12, although it can be given as early as age 9. It's ideal for girls and boys to receive the vaccine before they have sexual contact and are exposed to HPV. Research has shown that receiving the vaccine at a young age isn't linked to an earlier start of sexual activity.
Once someone is infected with HPV, the vaccine might not be as effective or might not work at all. Also, response to the vaccine is better at younger ages than it is at older ages.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now recommends that all 11- and 12-year-olds receive two doses of HPV vaccine at least six months apart, instead of the previously recommended three-dose schedule. Younger adolescents ages 9 and 10 and teens ages 13 and 14 also are able to receive vaccination on the updated two-dose schedule. Research has shown that the two-dose schedule is effective for children under 15.
Teens and young adults who begin the vaccine series later, at ages 15 through 26, should continue to receive three doses of the vaccine.
The CDC now recommends catch-up HPV vaccinations for all people through age 26 who aren't adequately vaccinated.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved the use of Gardasil 9 for males and females ages 9 to 45.
Who should not get the HPV vaccine?
The HPV vaccine isn't recommended for pregnant women or people who are moderately or severely ill. Tell your doctor if you have any severe allergies, including an allergy to yeast or latex. Also, if you've had a life-threatening allergic reaction to any component of the vaccine or to a previous dose of the vaccine, you shouldn't get the vaccine.
Does the HPV vaccine offer benefits if you're already sexually active?
Yes. Even if you already have one strain of HPV, you could still benefit from the vaccine because it can protect you from other strains that you don't yet have. However, none of the vaccines can treat an existing HPV infection. The vaccines protect you only from specific strains of HPV you haven't been exposed to already.
Does the HPV vaccine carry any health risks or side effects?
Overall, the effects are usually mild. The most common side effects of HPV vaccines include soreness, swelling or redness at the injection site.
Sometimes dizziness or fainting occurs after the injection. Remaining seated for 15 minutes after the injection can reduce the risk of fainting. In addition, headaches, nausea, vomiting, fatigue or weakness also may occur.
The CDC and the FDA continue to monitor the vaccines for unusual or severe problems.
Is the HPV vaccine required for school enrollment?
The HPV vaccine is part of the routine childhood vaccines schedule. Whether a vaccine becomes a school enrollment requirement is decided on a state-by-state basis.
Do women who've received the HPV vaccine still need to have Pap tests?
Yes. The HPV vaccine isn't intended to replace Pap tests. Routine screening for cervical cancer through regular Pap tests beginning at age 21 remains an essential part of a woman's preventive health care.
What can you do to protect yourself from cervical cancer if you're not in the recommended vaccine age group?
HPV spreads through sexual contact — oral, vaginal or anal. To protect yourself from HPV, use a condom every time you have sex. In addition, don't smoke. Smoking raises the risk of cervical cancer.
To detect cervical cancer in the earliest stages, see your health care provider for regular Pap tests beginning at age 21. Seek prompt medical attention if you notice any signs or symptoms of cervical cancer — vaginal bleeding after sex, between periods or after menopause, pelvic pain, or pain during sex.
May 14, 2020
See more In-depth
- HPV vaccine information for clinicians. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/hcp/clinician-factsheet.html. Accessed April 5, 2019.
- Cox JT, et al. Recommendations for the use of human papillomavirus vaccines. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 7, 2016.
- Petrosky E, et al. Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: Updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly. 2015;64:289.
- Genital HPV infection — CDC fact sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv.htm. Accessed July 7, 2016.
- Does your back-to-school checklist include vaccination? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/features/catchupimmunizations/. Accessed April 5, 2019.
- State vaccination requirements. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imz-managers/laws/state-reqs.html. Accessed July 7, 2016.
- Cervical cancer treatment — Patient version. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical. Accessed July 9, 2016.
- Human papillomavirus 9-valent vaccine, recombinant. Micromedex 2.0 Healthcare Series. http://www.micromedexsolutions.com. Accessed Oct. 10, 2018.
- FDA approves expanded use of Gardasil 9 to include individuals 27 through 45 years old. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm622715.htm. Accessed Oct. 10, 2018.
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination: What everyone should know. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/hpv/public/index.html. Accessed Oct. 10, 2018.
- Meites E, et al. Human papillomavirus vaccination for adults: Updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2019; doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6832a3.