Diagnosis

Your doctor will talk to you first about your medical history and your signs and symptoms. You may undergo some of the following tests:

  • Blood test. Tests can measure your blood levels of sodium, potassium, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce its hormones. A blood test can also measure antibodies associated with autoimmune Addison's disease.
  • ACTH stimulation test. ACTH signals your adrenal glands to produce cortisol. This test measures the level of cortisol in your blood before and after an injection of synthetic ACTH.
  • Insulin-induced hypoglycemia test. You may be given this test if doctors think you may have adrenal insufficiency as a result of pituitary disease (secondary adrenal insufficiency). The test involves checking your blood sugar (blood glucose) and cortisol levels after an injection of insulin. In healthy people, glucose levels fall and cortisol levels increase.

    In certain situations doctors may do alternative tests for secondary adrenal insufficiency, such as a low-dose ACTH stimulation test, prolonged ACTH stimulation test or glucagon stimulation test.

  • Imaging tests. You may undergo a computerized tomography (CT) scan of your abdomen to check the size of your adrenal glands and look for other abnormalities. You may also undergo an MRI scan of your pituitary gland if testing indicates you might have secondary adrenal insufficiency.

Treatment

All treatment for Addison's disease involves medication. You will be given hormone replacement therapy to correct the levels of steroid hormones your body isn't producing. Some options for treatment include oral corticosteroids such as:

  • Hydrocortisone (Cortef), prednisone or methylprednisolone to replace cortisol. These hormones are given on a schedule to mimic the normal 24-hour fluctuation of cortisol levels.
  • Fludrocortisone acetate to replace aldosterone.

You will need to get plenty of salt (sodium) in your diet, especially during heavy exercise, when the weather is hot or if you have gastrointestinal upsets, such as diarrhea.

Your doctor will also suggest a temporary increase in your medication dosage if your body is stressed, such as from an operation, an infection or a minor illness. If you're ill with vomiting and can't keep down oral medications, you may need injections of corticosteroids.

Other treatment recommendations include:

  • Carry a medical alert card and bracelet at all times. A steroid emergency card and medical alert identification will let emergency medical personnel know what kind of care you need. Also have a written action plan.
  • Keep extra medication handy. Missing even one day of medication may be dangerous, so keep a small supply of medication at work and with you whenever you travel.
  • Carry a glucocorticoid injection kit. The kit contains a needle, syringe and injectable form of corticosteroids to use in case of emergency.
  • Stay in contact with your doctor. Keep an ongoing relationship with your doctor to make sure that the doses of replacement hormones are adequate, but not excessive. If you're having ongoing problems with your medications, you may need adjustments in the doses or timing of the medications.
  • Have annual checkups. See your doctor or an endocrinology specialist at least once a year. Your doctor may recommend annual screening for a number of autoimmune diseases.

Treatment for an addisonian crisis, which is a medical emergency, typically includes intravenous injections of:

  • Corticosteroids
  • Saline solution
  • Sugar (dextrose)

Potential future treatments

Researchers are working to develop delayed-release corticosteroids, which act more like the human body. They are also working on pumps implanted under the skin that can deliver steroids in more-accurate doses.

Future treatment may eventually involve using adrenocortical stem cells combined with immunomodulatory treatment — modifying the immune response or the immune system — as well as gene therapy.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Coping and support

Support groups are available through the National Adrenal Diseases Foundation.

Preparing for your appointment

You're likely to start by seeing your family doctor or a general practitioner. However, when you call to set up an appointment, you may be referred to an endocrinologist.

Because appointments can be brief, and because there's often a lot of ground to cover, it's a good idea to be well-prepared for your appointment. Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment, and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as restrict your diet.
  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking.
  • Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to recall all the information provided to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time with your doctor is limited, so preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of your time together. List your questions from most important to least important in case time runs out. For Addison's disease, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms or condition?
  • Other than the most likely cause, what are possible causes for my symptoms or condition?
  • What kinds of tests do I need?
  • Is my condition likely temporary or chronic?
  • What is the best course of action?
  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach you're suggesting?
  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
  • Are there any restrictions I need to follow?
  • Should I see a specialist?
  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing me?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may reserve time to go over any points you want to spend more time on. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?
Nov. 10, 2018
References
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  2. Adrenal insufficiency and Addison's disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive Health and Kidney Disease. http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/endocrine/adrenal-insufficiency-addisons-disease/Pages/fact-sheet.aspx. Accessed Oct. 14, 2018.
  3. Papadakis MA, et al., eds. Endocrine disorders. In: Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2018. 57th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Education; 2018. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Aug. 24, 2018.
  4. Nieman LK. Clinical manifestations of adrenal insufficiency in adults. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Aug. 24, 2018.
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  6. AskMayoExpert. Adrenal insufficiency (adult). Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2018.
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