概述

胶质瘤是一种在大脑或脊髓内发生的肿瘤。胶质瘤起源于神经细胞周围协助其发挥功能的胶质支持细胞(胶质细胞)。

有三种类型的胶质细胞可能会产生肿瘤。胶质瘤根据与肿瘤有关的胶质细胞类型以及肿瘤的遗传学特征进行分类,这可以帮助预测肿瘤随时间推移的变化以及可能最有效的治疗方案。

胶质瘤的类型包括:

  • 星形细胞瘤,包括星形细胞瘤、间变性星形细胞瘤和胶质母细胞瘤
  • 室管膜瘤,包括间变性室管膜瘤、黏液乳头状室管膜瘤和亚室管膜瘤
  • 少突神经胶质瘤,包括少突神经胶质瘤、间变性少突神经胶质瘤和间变性少突星形细胞瘤

根据肿瘤位置和生长速度的不同,胶质瘤可能影响脑功能并危及生命。

胶质瘤是最常见的原发性脑部肿瘤之一。

明确胶质瘤的类型有助于确定您的治疗方案和预后措施。一般来说,可供胶质瘤患者选择的治疗方案包括手术、放射疗法、化疗、靶向疗法和实验性临床试验。

Types

症状

胶质瘤的症状因肿瘤类型以及肿瘤大小、位置和生长速度而不同。

胶质瘤的常见体征和症状包括:

  • 头痛
  • 恶心或呕吐
  • 意识混乱或脑功能下降
  • 记忆丧失
  • 人格改变或易怒
  • 平衡困难
  • 尿失禁
  • 视力问题,如视力模糊、复视或周边视觉丧失
  • 说话困难
  • 癫痫发作,尤其是无癫痫发作史的患者

何时就诊

如果您有胶质瘤常见的体征和症状,请预约医生就诊。

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病因

与大多数原发性脑肿瘤一样,胶质瘤的确切病因尚不清楚。但是有些因素可能会增加您患脑肿瘤的风险。

风险因素

与大多数原发性脑肿瘤一样,胶质瘤的确切病因尚不清楚。但是有些因素可能会增加您患脑肿瘤的风险。风险因素包括:

  • 年龄。随着年龄的增长,患脑肿瘤的风险会升高。胶质瘤在 45 至 65 岁之间的成人中最为常见。但是,脑肿瘤可能发生在任何年龄段。某些类型的胶质瘤,例如室管膜瘤和毛细胞型星形细胞瘤,在儿童和青壮年中更为常见。
  • 辐射照射。暴露于电离辐射会增加患脑肿瘤的风险。电离辐射的例子包括用于治疗癌症的放射疗法和原子弹导致的辐射照射。

    尚无证据显示更为常见的辐射形式(如电线产生的电磁场和微波炉产生的射频辐射)会增加患胶质瘤的风险。

    尚不清楚使用手机是否会增加患脑癌的风险。一些研究发现,使用手机与一种叫做听神经瘤的脑癌之间可能存在关联。其他许多研究均未发现这种关联。由于手机是一种相对较新的因素,因此需要进行更长时间的研究来了解其对癌症风险的潜在影响。目前,如果您担心手机与癌症之间可能存在联系,专家建议您使用扬声器或免提设备,这样可以使手机远离头部,从而限制您的暴露。

  • 胶质瘤家族史。胶质瘤很少有家族遗传的情况。但是如果有胶质瘤家族史,则患胶质瘤的风险会加倍。一些基因与胶质瘤有微弱的相关性,但需要更多的研究来证实这些基因变异与脑肿瘤之间的联系。

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April 04, 2020
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