Diagnosis

Stomach cancer FAQs

Oncologist Mohamad (Bassam) Sonbol, M.D., answers the most frequently asked questions about stomach cancer.

Hi. I'm Dr. Bassam Sonbol, an oncologist at Mayo Clinic, and I'm here to answer some of the important questions patients may have about stomach cancers.

Yes, they can be. People sometimes pass on DNA mutations to their kids that will put them at higher risk for having stomach cancers. Multiple things can raise suspicion that a stomach cancer is hereditary, such as having cancer at a younger age, having a history of other cancers or having a history of multiple cancers in the family.

I think it's always advisable to get a second opinion from a specialized center that frequently treats stomach cancer, as these cancers are generally rare in the United States. Very frequently, the specialized center doctors can work with your local primary doctor as a team to take care of you.

The answer is yes. But it depends on the staging and other factors. First, what's meant by cure is to get rid of the cancer completely and prevent it from coming back in the future. For gastric cancer that hasn't traveled to a different organ, cure as possible. And it's the main goal. An endoscopic procedure or surgery can achieve cure. Adding chemotherapy to surgery in some circumstances can also increase the chance of cure.

In patients who have metastatic disease, cure is rarely achieved. Therefore, the treatment goal is to prolong life and improve quality of life. We know that systemic treatments, such as chemotherapy targeted therapies, and others, increase quality of life for the majority of patients, as it controls the cancer, along with multiple symptoms caused by the cancer itself. In addition, science is advancing every day and some of the treatments we have now were not available the year before. And with some newer treatments, we are encountering improvement in the overall outcomes and in some circumstances, long remissions.

Be prepared for the visit, ask questions and keep communicating. Communication is important. Remember, if your doctor and the medical team does not hear from you, they assume that you're doing well. Therefore, it is important to communicate your symptoms, concerns, and other factors related to your care to your medical team. Never hesitate to ask your medical team any questions or concerns you have. Being informed makes all the difference. Thanks for your time and we wish you well.

Tests and procedures used to diagnose and detect stomach cancer include:

  • Looking inside the stomach. To look for signs of cancer, your health care provider might use a tiny camera to see inside your stomach. This procedure is called upper endoscopy. A thin tube with a tiny camera on the end is passed down the throat and into the stomach.
  • Taking a sample of tissue for testing. If something that looks like cancer is found in your stomach, it might be removed for testing. This is called a biopsy. It can be done during an upper endoscopy. Special tools are passed down the tube to get the tissue sample. The sample is sent to a lab for testing.

Determining the stage of stomach cancer

Once you're found to have stomach cancer, you might have other tests to see if the cancer has spread. This information is used to give the cancer a stage. The stage tells your provider how advanced your cancer is and about your prognosis. Tests and procedures used to find the stage of stomach cancer include:

  • Blood tests. A blood test can't diagnose stomach cancer. Blood tests can give your provider clues about your health. For example, tests to measure your liver health might show problems caused by stomach cancer that spreads to the liver.

    Another type of blood test looks for pieces of cancer cells in the blood. This is called a circulating tumor DNA test. It's only used in certain situations for people with stomach cancer. For example, this test might be used if you have advanced cancer and can't have a biopsy. Collecting pieces of cells from the blood can give your health care team information to help plan your treatment.

  • Stomach ultrasound. Ultrasound is an imaging test that uses sound waves to make pictures. For stomach cancer, the pictures can show how far the cancer has grown into the stomach wall. To get the pictures, a thin tube with a camera on the tip goes down the throat and into the stomach. A special ultrasound tool is used to make pictures of the stomach.

    Ultrasound might be used to look at lymph nodes near the stomach. The images can help guide a needle to collect tissue from the lymph nodes. The tissue is tested in a lab to look for cancer cells.

  • Imaging tests. Imaging tests make pictures to help your care team look for signs that stomach cancer has spread. The pictures could show cancer cells in nearby lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Tests may include CT and positron emission tomography (PET).
  • Surgery. Sometimes imaging tests don't give a clear picture of your cancer, so surgery is needed to see inside the body. Surgery can look for cancer that has spread, which is also called metastasized cancer. Surgery might help your health care team make sure there are no small bits of cancer on the liver or in the belly.

Other tests may be used in certain situations.

Your health care team uses the information from these tests to give your cancer a stage. The stages of stomach cancer are numbers from 0 to 4.

At stage 0, the cancer is small and only on the inside surface of the stomach. A stage 1 stomach cancer has grown into the inner layers of the stomach. In stage 2 and stage 3, the cancer grows deeper into the wall of the stomach. The cancer may have spread to nearby lymph nodes. At stage 4, the stomach cancer may have grown through the stomach and into nearby organs. Stage 4 includes cancers that have spread to other parts of the body. When cancer spreads, it's called metastatic cancer. When stomach cancer metastasizes, it often goes to the lymph nodes or the liver. It can also go to the lining around the organs in the belly, which is called the peritoneum.

Your health care team might give your cancer a new stage after your first treatment. There are separate staging systems for stomach cancer that can be used after surgery or after chemotherapy.

Understanding your prognosis

Your health care team uses your cancer's stage to understand your prognosis. The prognosis is how likely it is that the cancer will be cured. For stomach cancer, the prognosis for early-stage cancer is very good. As the stage gets higher, the chances of a cure get lower. Even when stomach cancer can't be cured, treatments may control the cancer to prolong your life and make you comfortable.

Things that can influence the prognosis for stomach cancer include:

  • The type of cancer
  • The cancer's stage
  • Where the cancer is within the stomach
  • Your overall health
  • If the cancer is removed completely with surgery
  • If the cancer responds to treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy

If you're concerned about your prognosis, talk about it with your provider. Ask about the seriousness of your cancer.

Detecting stomach cancer before it causes symptoms

Sometimes tests are used to look for stomach cancer in people who don't have symptoms. This is called stomach cancer screening. The goal of screening is to detect stomach cancer when it's small and more likely to be cured.

In the United States, stomach cancer screening tests are only for people with a high risk of stomach cancer. Your risk could be high if stomach cancer runs in your family. You could have a high risk if you have a genetic syndrome that can cause stomach cancer. Examples include hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, Lynch syndrome, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis.

In other parts of the world where stomach cancer is much more common, tests to detect stomach cancer are used more widely.

Upper endoscopy is the most common test used to detect stomach cancer. Some countries use X-rays to detect stomach cancer.

Stomach cancer screening is an active area of cancer research. Scientists are studying blood tests and other ways to detect stomach cancer before it causes symptoms.

Treatment

Treatment options for stomach cancer depend on the cancer's location within the stomach and its stage. Your health care provider also thinks about your overall health and your preferences when making a treatment plan. Stomach cancer treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and palliative care.

Surgery

The goal of surgery for stomach cancer, which is also called gastric cancer, is to remove all of the cancer. For small stomach cancers, surgery might be the first treatment. Other treatments might be used first if the stomach cancer grows deeper into the stomach wall or spreads to the lymph nodes.

Operations used to treat stomach cancer include:

  • Removing small cancers from the stomach lining. Very small cancers can be cut away from the inside lining of the stomach. To remove the cancer, a tube is passed down the throat and into the stomach. Special cutting tools are passed through the tube to cut out the cancer. This procedure is called an endoscopic mucosal resection. It might be an option for treating stage 1 cancer that's growing on the inner lining of the stomach.
  • Removing part of the stomach. This procedure is called a subtotal gastrectomy. The surgeon removes the part of the stomach affected by cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it. It might be an option if your stomach cancer is located in the part of the stomach nearest the small intestine.
  • Removing the entire stomach. This procedure is called a total gastrectomy. It involves removing all of the stomach and some surrounding tissue. The surgeon connects the esophagus to the small intestine to allow food to move through the digestive system. Total gastrectomy is a treatment for cancers in the part of the stomach that is closest to the esophagus.
  • Removing lymph nodes to look for cancer. The surgeon may remove lymph nodes in your belly to test them for cancer.
  • Surgery to relieve symptoms. An operation to remove part of the stomach may relieve symptoms of a growing cancer. This might be an option if the cancer is advanced and other treatments haven't helped.

Small stage 1 stomach cancers often can be cut away from the inner lining of the stomach. But if the cancer grows into the muscle layer of the stomach wall, this might not be an option. Some stage 1 cancers may need surgery to remove all of or some of the stomach.

For stage 2 and stage 3 stomach cancers, surgery might not be the first treatment. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy might be used first to shrink the cancer. This might make it easier to remove the cancer completely. Surgery often involves removing some or all of the stomach and also some lymph nodes.

If stage 4 stomach cancer grows through the stomach and into nearby organs, surgery might be an option. To remove all of the cancer, parts of the nearby organs might be removed, too. Other treatments might be used first to shrink the cancer. If a stage 4 cancer can't be removed completely, surgery might help control symptoms.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. Types of chemotherapy include:

  • Chemotherapy that travels through your whole body. The most common type of chemotherapy involves medicines that travel through your whole body, killing cancer cells. This is called systemic chemotherapy. The medicines can be given through a vein or taken in pill form.
  • Chemotherapy that only goes in the belly. This type of chemotherapy is called hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). HIPEC is done right after surgery. After the surgeon removes the stomach cancer, the chemotherapy medicines are put directly into the belly. The medicines are heated to make them more effective. The chemotherapy is left in place for a set amount of time and then drained.

Chemotherapy might not be needed for stage 1 stomach cancer. It might not be needed if surgery removed all of the cancer and there's a low risk of cancer coming back.

Chemotherapy is often used before surgery to treat stage 2 and stage 3 stomach cancers. Systemic chemotherapy might help shrink the cancer so that it's easier to remove. Giving chemotherapy before surgery is called neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Systemic chemotherapy might be used after surgery if there's a risk that some cancer cells were left behind. This risk might be higher if the cancer grows deep into the stomach wall or spreads to the lymph nodes. Giving chemotherapy after surgery is called adjuvant chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy can be used alone or it can be combined with radiation therapy.

If surgery isn't an option, systemic chemotherapy might be recommended instead. It might be used if the cancer is too advanced or if you're not healthy enough to have surgery. Chemotherapy might help control cancer symptoms.

HIPEC is an experimental treatment that might be an option for stage 4 stomach cancer. It might be used if the cancer can't be removed completely because it extends through the stomach and into nearby organs. The surgeon might remove as much of the cancer as possible. Then HIPEC helps to kill any cancer cells that are left.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-powered beams of energy to kill cancer cells. The beams can come from X-rays, protons or other sources. During radiation therapy, you lie on a table while a machine gives the radiation treatment to precise points on your body.

Radiation therapy is often done at the same time as chemotherapy. Sometimes doctors call this chemoradiation.

Radiation therapy might not be needed for stage 1 stomach cancer. It might not be needed if surgery removed all of the cancer and there's a low risk that the cancer will come back.

Radiation is sometimes used before surgery to treat stage 2 and stage 3 stomach cancers. It can shrink the cancer so that it's easier to remove. Giving radiation before surgery is called neoadjuvant radiation.

Radiation therapy might be used after surgery if the cancer can't be removed completely. Giving radiation after surgery is called adjuvant radiation.

Radiation can help relieve stomach cancer symptoms if the cancer is advanced or surgery isn't possible.

Targeted therapy

Targeted treatments use medicines that attack specific chemicals present within cancer cells. By blocking these chemicals, targeted treatments can cause cancer cells to die.

Your cancer cells are tested to see if targeted therapy is likely to work for you.

For stomach cancer, targeted therapy is often used with systemic chemotherapy. Targeted therapy is typically used for advanced stomach cancer. This might include stage 4 stomach cancer and cancer that comes back after treatment.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a treatment with medicine that helps your body's immune system to kill cancer cells. Your immune system fights off diseases by attacking germs and other cells that shouldn't be in your body. Cancer cells survive by hiding from the immune system. Immunotherapy helps the immune system cells find and kill the cancer cells.

Immunotherapy is sometimes used to treat advanced cancer. This might include stage 4 stomach cancer or cancer that comes back after treatment.

Palliative care

Palliative care is a special type of health care that helps you feel better when you have a serious illness. If you have cancer, palliative care can help relieve pain and other symptoms. Palliative care is done by a team of health care providers. This can include doctors, nurses and other specially trained professionals. Their goal is to improve the quality of life for you and your family.

Palliative care specialists work with you, your family and your care team to help you feel better. They provide an extra layer of support while you have cancer treatment. You can have palliative care at the same time as strong cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

When palliative care is used along with all of the other appropriate treatments, people with cancer may feel better and live longer.

Get Mayo Clinic cancer expertise delivered to your inbox.

Subscribe for free and receive an in-depth guide to coping with cancer, plus helpful information on how to get a second opinion. You can unsubscribe at any time.

I would like to learn more about

To provide you with the most relevant and helpful information, and understand which information is beneficial, we may combine your email and website usage information with other information we have about you. If you are a Mayo Clinic patient, this could include protected health information. If we combine this information with your protected health information, we will treat all of that information as protected health information and will only use or disclose that information as set forth in our notice of privacy practices. You may opt-out of email communications at any time by clicking on the unsubscribe link in the e-mail.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition.

Coping and support

A cancer diagnosis can be overwhelming and frightening. It may take time to adjust to the initial shock of your diagnosis. In time you'll find ways to cope. Until then, it might help to:

  • Learn enough to make decisions about your care. Ask your health care provider to write down the details of your cancer. This can include the type, the stage and your treatment options. Use those details to find more information about stomach cancer. Learn about the benefits and risks of each treatment option.
  • Connect with other cancer survivors. Ask your provider about support groups in your area. Or go online and connect with cancer survivors on message boards, such as those run by the American Cancer Society.
  • Stay active. Being diagnosed with cancer doesn't mean you have to stop doing the things you enjoy or normally do. For the most part, if you feel well enough to do something, go ahead and do it.

Preparing for your appointment

Start by seeing your usual health care provider if you have any symptoms that worry you. If your provider thinks that you may have a stomach problem, you may be referred to a specialist. This might be a doctor who diagnoses and treats problems in the digestive system. This doctor is called a gastroenterologist.

Once stomach cancer is diagnosed, you may be referred to other specialists. This might be a cancer doctor, which is also called an oncologist, or a surgeon who specializes in operating on the digestive tract.

It's a good idea to be prepared for your appointment. Here's some information to help you get ready, and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as restrict your diet.
  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking.
  • Note what seems to improve or worsen your signs and symptoms. Keep track of which foods, medications or other factors influence your signs and symptoms.
  • Consider taking a family member or friend along. Sometimes it can be hard to absorb all the information provided during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time with your health care provider is limited, so prepare a list of questions. List your questions from most important to least important in case time runs out. For stomach cancer, some basic questions to ask include:

  • What type of stomach cancer do I have?
  • How advanced is my stomach cancer?
  • What other kinds of tests do I need?
  • What are my treatment options?
  • How successful are the treatments?
  • What are the benefits and risks of each option?
  • Is there one option you feel is best for me?
  • How will treatment affect my life? Can I continue to work?
  • Should I seek a second opinion? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?
  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared, don't hesitate to ask other questions you think of during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your provider is likely to ask you questions. Being ready to answer them may allow more time later to cover other points you want to address. Your provider may ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

Stomach cancer care at Mayo Clinic

Sept. 14, 2022

Living with stomach cancer?

Connect with others like you for support and answers to your questions in the Proton Beam Therapy support group on Mayo Clinic Connect, a patient community.

Proton Beam Therapy Discussions

upnort
What's the difference between proton vs traditional radiation?

17 Replies Sat, Feb 12, 2022

desertrat
Starting Proton Treatments for Prostate Cancer: Any experiences?

12 Replies Sat, Feb 05, 2022

tomm1951
What's your experience: proton SBRT non small cell lung cancer?

5 Replies Thu, Sep 23, 2021

See more discussions
  1. AskMayoExpert. Gastric cancer (adult). Mayo Clinic; 2020.
  2. Gastric cancer. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. https://www.nccn.org/guidelines/guidelines-detail?category=1&id=1434. Accessed July 22, 2022.
  3. Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Cancer of the stomach. In: Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2020. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 22, 2022.
  4. Gastric cancer treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/types/stomach/patient/stomach-treatment-pdq. Accessed July 22, 2022.
  5. Gastric (stomach) cancer prevention (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/types/stomach/patient/stomach-prevention-pdq. Accessed July 22, 2022.
  6. Palliative care. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. https://www.nccn.org/guidelines/guidelines-detail?category=3&id=1454. Accessed July 22, 2022.
  7. Odze RD, et al., eds. Epithelial neoplasms of the stomach. In: Surgical Pathology of the GI Tract, Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas. 4th ed. Elsevier; 2023. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 5, 2022.
  8. Mansfield PF. Clinical features, diagnosis and staging of gastric cancer. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Aug. 5, 2022.
  9. Andreas A, et al., eds. The stomach. In: Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging. 7th ed. Elsevier; 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 5, 2022.
  10. Xia JY, et al. Advances in screening and detection of gastric cancer. Journal of Surgical Oncology. 2022; doi:10.1002/jso.26844.
  11. Best hospitals for gastroenterology and GI surgery. U.S. News & World Report. https://health.usnews.com/best-hospitals/rankings/gastroenterology-and-gi-surgery. Accessed Aug. 2, 2022.
  12. Best hospitals for cancer. U.S. News & World Report. https://health.usnews.com/best-hospitals/rankings/cancer. Accessed Sept. 9, 2022.
  13. Warner KJ. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic. Feb. 12, 2020.