Diagnosis

No specific test exists to diagnose Parkinson's disease. Your doctor trained in nervous system conditions (neurologist) will diagnose Parkinson's disease based on your medical history, a review of your signs and symptoms, and a neurological and physical examination.

Your doctor may order tests, such as blood tests, to rule out other conditions that may be causing your symptoms.

Imaging tests — such as MRI, ultrasound of the brain, SPECT and PET scans — may also be used to help rule out other disorders. Imaging tests aren't particularly helpful for diagnosing Parkinson's disease.

In addition to your examination, your doctor may give you carbidopa-levodopa, a Parkinson's disease medication. You must be given a sufficient dose to show the benefit, as low doses for a day or two aren't reliable. Significant improvement with this medication will often confirm your diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.

Sometimes it takes time to diagnose Parkinson's disease. Doctors may recommend regular follow-up appointments with neurologists trained in movement disorders to evaluate your condition and symptoms over time and diagnose Parkinson's disease.

Treatment

Parkinson's disease can't be cured, but medications can help control your symptoms, often dramatically. In some later cases, surgery may be advised.

Your doctor may also recommend lifestyle changes, especially ongoing aerobic exercise. In some cases, physical therapy that focuses on balance and stretching also is important. A speech-language pathologist may help improve your speech problems.

Medications

Medications may help you manage problems with walking, movement and tremor. These medications increase or substitute for dopamine, a specific signaling chemical (neurotransmitter) in your brain.

People with Parkinson's disease have low brain dopamine concentrations. However, dopamine can't be given directly, as it can't enter your brain.

You may have significant improvement of your symptoms after beginning Parkinson's disease treatment. Over time, however, the benefits of drugs frequently diminish or become less consistent, although symptoms usually can continue to be fairly well-controlled.

Medications your doctor may prescribe include:

  • Carbidopa-levodopa. Levodopa, the most effective Parkinson's disease medication, is a natural chemical that passes into your brain and is converted to dopamine.

    Levodopa is combined with carbidopa (Rytary, Sinemet), which protects levodopa from premature conversion to dopamine outside your brain, which prevents or lessens side effects such as nausea.

    Side effects may include nausea or lightheadedness (orthostatic hypotension).

    After years, as your disease progresses, the benefit from levodopa may become less stable, with a tendency to wax and wane ("wearing off").

    Also, you may experience involuntary movements (dyskinesia) after taking higher doses of levodopa. Your doctor may lessen your dose or adjust the times of your doses to control these effects.

  • Carbidopa-levodopa infusion. The U.S. Food and Drug administration approved a drug called Duopa in 2015. This medication is made up of carbidopa and levodopa. However, it's administered through a feeding tube that delivers the medication in a gel form directly to the small intestine.

    Duopa is for patients with more advanced Parkinson's who still respond to carbidopa-levodopa, but who have a lot of fluctuations in their response. Because Duopa is continually infused, blood levels of the two drugs remain constant.

    Placement of the tube requires a small surgical procedure. Risks associated with having the tube include the tube falling out or infections at the infusion site.

  • Dopamine agonists. Unlike levodopa, dopamine agonists don't change into dopamine. Instead, they mimic dopamine effects in your brain.

    They aren't as effective as levodopa in treating your symptoms. However, they last longer and may be used with levodopa to smooth the sometimes off-and-on effect of levodopa.

    Dopamine agonists include pramipexole (Mirapex), ropinirole (Requip) and rotigotine (given as a patch, Neupro). A short-acting injectable dopamine agonist, apomorphine (Apokyn), is used for quick relief.

    Some of the side effects of dopamine agonists are similar to the side effects of carbidopa-levodopa, but also include hallucinations, sleepiness and compulsive behaviors such as hypersexuality, gambling and eating. If you're taking these medications and you behave in a way that's out of character for you, talk to your doctor.

  • MAO-B inhibitors. These medications include selegiline (Eldepryl, Zelapar) and rasagiline (Azilect). They help prevent the breakdown of brain dopamine by inhibiting the brain enzyme monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). This enzyme metabolizes brain dopamine. Side effects may include nausea or insomnia.

    When added to carbidopa-levodopa, these medications increase the risk of hallucinations.

    These medications are not often used in combination with most antidepressants or certain narcotics due to potentially serious but rare reactions. Check with your doctor before taking any additional medications with a MAO-B inhibitor.

  • Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors. Entacapone (Comtan) is the primary medication from this class. This medication mildly prolongs the effect of levodopa therapy by blocking an enzyme that breaks down dopamine.

    Side effects, including an increased risk of involuntary movements (dyskinesias), mainly result from an enhanced levodopa effect. Other side effects include diarrhea or other enhanced levodopa side effects.

    Tolcapone (Tasmar) is another COMT inhibitor that is rarely prescribed due to a risk of serious liver damage and liver failure.

  • Anticholinergics. These medications were used for many years to help control the tremor associated with Parkinson's disease. Several anticholinergic medications are available, including benztropine (Cogentin) or trihexyphenidyl.

    However, their modest benefits are often offset by side effects such as impaired memory, confusion, hallucinations, constipation, dry mouth and impaired urination.

  • Amantadine. Doctors may prescribe amantadine alone to provide short-term relief of symptoms of mild, early-stage Parkinson's disease. It may also be given with carbidopa-levodopa therapy during the later stages of Parkinson's disease to control involuntary movements (dyskinesias) induced by carbidopa-levodopa.

    Side effects may include a purple mottling of the skin, ankle swelling or hallucinations.

Surgical procedures

  • Deep brain stimulation. In deep brain stimulation (DBS), surgeons implant electrodes into a specific part of your brain. The electrodes are connected to a generator implanted in your chest near your collarbone that sends electrical pulses to your brain and may reduce your Parkinson's disease symptoms.

  • Your doctor may adjust your settings as necessary to treat your condition. Surgery involves risks, including infections, stroke or brain hemorrhage. Some people experience problems with the DBS system or have complications due to stimulation, and your doctor may need to adjust or replace some parts of the system.

    Deep brain stimulation is most often offered to people with advanced Parkinson's disease who have unstable medication (levodopa) responses. DBS can stabilize medication fluctuations, reduce or halt involuntary movements (dyskinesias), reduce tremor, reduce rigidity, and improve slowing of movement.

    DBS is effective in controlling erratic and fluctuating responses to levodopa or for controlling dyskinesias that don't improve with medication adjustments.

    However, DBS isn't helpful for problems that don't respond to levodopa therapy apart from tremor. A tremor may be controlled by DBS even if the tremor isn't very responsive to levodopa.

    Although DBS may provide sustained benefit for Parkinson's symptoms, it doesn't keep Parkinson's disease from progressing.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Lifestyle and home remedies

If you've received a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, you'll need to work closely with your doctor to find a treatment plan that offers you the greatest relief from symptoms with the fewest side effects. Certain lifestyle changes may also help make living with Parkinson's disease easier.

Healthy eating

While there's no food or combination of foods proven to help in Parkinson's disease, some foods may help ease some of the symptoms. For example, eating foods high in fiber and drinking an adequate amount of fluids can help prevent constipation that is common in Parkinson's disease.

A balanced diet also provides nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, that may be beneficial for people with Parkinson's disease.

Exercise

Exercising may increase your muscle strength, flexibility and balance. Exercise can also improve your well-being and reduce depression or anxiety.

Your doctor may suggest you work with a physical therapist to learn an exercise program that works for you. You may also try exercises such as walking, swimming, gardening, dancing, water aerobics or stretching.

Parkinson's disease can disturb your sense of balance, making it difficult to walk with a normal gait. Exercise may improve your balance. These suggestions may also help:

  • Try not to move too quickly.
  • Aim for your heel to strike the floor first when you're walking.
  • If you notice yourself shuffling, stop and check your posture. It's best to stand up straight.
  • Look in front of you, not directly down, while walking.

Avoiding falls

In the later stages of the disease, you may fall more easily. In fact, you may be thrown off balance by just a small push or bump. The following suggestions may help:

  • Make a U-turn instead of pivoting your body over your feet.
  • Distribute your weight evenly between both feet, and don't lean.
  • Avoid carrying things while you walk.
  • Avoid walking backward.

Daily living activities

Daily living activities — such as dressing, eating, bathing and writing — can be difficult for people with Parkinson's disease. An occupational therapist can show you techniques that make daily life easier.

Alternative medicine

Some types of alternative medicine may help people with Parkinson's disease, including:

  • Coenzyme Q10. Early research suggested that high doses of coenzyme Q10 — a readily available supplement — may be beneficial for people in the early stages of Parkinson's disease. However, the benefits appear to depend on taking the supplement for 16 months or longer.
  • Massage. Massage therapy can reduce muscle tension and promote relaxation. These services, however, are rarely covered by health insurance.
  • Acupuncture. During an acupuncture session, a trained practitioner inserts tiny needles into many specific points on your body, which may reduce your pain.
  • Tai chi. An ancient form of Chinese exercise, tai chi employs slow, flowing motions that may improve flexibility, balance and muscle strength. Tai chi may also prevent falls. Several forms of tai chi are tailored for people of any age or physical condition.

    A study showed tai chi may improve the balance of people with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease more than stretching and resistance training.

  • Yoga. In yoga, gentle stretching movements and poses may increase your flexibility and balance. You may modify most poses to fit your physical abilities.
  • Alexander technique. This technique — which focuses on muscle posture, balance and thinking about how you use muscles — may reduce muscle tension and pain.
  • Meditation. In meditation, you quietly reflect and focus your mind on an idea or image. Meditation may reduce stress and pain and improve your sense of well-being.
  • Music or art therapy. Music or art therapy may help you to relax. Music therapy helps some people with Parkinson's disease to improve their walking and speech. Participating in art therapy, such as painting or ceramics, may improve your mood and help you relax.
  • Pet therapy. Having a dog or cat may increase your flexibility and movement and improve your emotional health.

Coping and support

Living with any chronic illness can be difficult, and it's normal to feel angry, depressed or discouraged at times. Parkinson's disease, in particular, can be profoundly frustrating, as walking, talking and even eating become more difficult and time-consuming.

Depression is common in people with Parkinson's disease. But antidepressant medications can help ease the symptoms of depression, so talk with your doctor if you're feeling persistently sad or hopeless.

Although friends and family can be your best allies, the understanding of people who know what you're going through can be especially helpful. Support groups aren't for everyone. However, for many people with Parkinson's disease and their families, support groups can be a good resource for practical information about Parkinson's disease.

Also, groups offer a place for you to find people who are going through similar situations and can support you.

To learn about support groups in your community, talk to your doctor, a Parkinson's disease social worker or a local public health nurse. Or contact the National Parkinson Foundation or the American Parkinson Disease Association.

You and your family may also benefit from talking to a mental health professional (psychologist) or social worker trained in working with people who have chronic conditions.

Preparing for your appointment

You're likely to first see your primary care doctor. However, you may then be referred to a doctor trained in nervous system disorders (neurologist).

Because there's often a lot to discuss, it's a good idea to prepare for your appointment. Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment and what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins and supplements that you're taking.
  • Ask a family member or friend to come with you, if possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all of the information provided to you during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time with your doctor is limited, so preparing a list of questions ahead of time will help you make the most of your time together. For Parkinson's disease, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?
  • Are there other possible causes?
  • What kinds of tests do I need? Do these tests require any special preparation?
  • How does Parkinson's disease usually progress?
  • Will I eventually need long-term care?
  • What treatments are available, and which do you recommend for me?
  • What types of side effects can I expect from treatment?
  • If the treatment doesn't work or stops working, do I have additional options?
  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage these conditions together?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions that occur to you during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may reserve time to go over any points you want to spend more time on. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Do you have symptoms all the time or do they come and go?
  • Does anything seem to improve your symptoms?
  • Does anything seem to make your symptoms worse?

Parkinson's disease care at Mayo Clinic

July 07, 2015
References
  1. Longo DL, et al. Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2012. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed April 6, 2015.
  2. Parkinson's disease: Hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/parkinsons_disease/detail_parkinsons_disease.htm. Accessed April 6. 2015.
  3. Ferri FF. Parkinson's disease. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 6, 2015.
  4. Chou KL. Diagnosis of Parkinson disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 6. 2015.
  5. Tarsy D. Pharmacologic treatment of Parkinson disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 6. 2015.
  6. Adler CH, et al. Submandibular gland needle biopsy for the diagnosis of Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2014;82:858.
  7. Bousquet M, et al. Impact of omega-3 fatty acids in Parkinson's disease. Ageing Research Reviews. 2011;10:453.
  8. Parkinson's disease: Fitness counts. National Parkinson Foundation. http://www.parkinson.org/Search-Pages/Search.aspx?pKeywords=fitness. Accessed April 9, 2015.
  9. Parkinson's disease. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http://www.naturaldatabase.com. Accessed April 6, 2015.
  10. Tarsy D. Nonpharmacologic management of Parkinson disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home/. Accessed April 6, 2015.
  11. Complementary therapies and Parkinson's. Parkinson's Disease Society of the United Kingdom. http://www.parkinsons.org.uk/content/complementary-therapies-and-parkinsons-booklet. Accessed April 9, 2015.
  12. Jankovic J. Etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 6, 2015.
  13. Riggs EA. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 16, 2015.
  14. Abbvie announces U.S. approval of duopa (carbidopa and levodopa) enteral suspension for the treatment of motor fluctuations in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. http://abbvie.mediaroom.com/2015-01-12-AbbVie-Announces-U-S-FDA-Approval-of-DUOPA-carbidopa-and-levodopa-Enteral-Suspension-for-the-Treatment-of-Motor-Fluctuations-in-Patients-with-Advanced-Parkinsons-Disease. Accessed April 20, 2015.
  15. Bower JH (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. April 20, 2015.