Diagnosis

No single test can identify frontotemporal dementia, so doctors attempt to identify certain characteristic features while excluding other possible causes.

The disorder can be especially challenging to diagnose in the early stages, as symptoms of frontotemporal dementia often overlap with those of other conditions.

Blood tests

To see if your symptoms are being caused by a different condition, such as liver or kidney disease, your doctor may order blood tests.

Neuropsychological testing

Sometimes doctors undertake a more extensive assessment of reasoning and memory skills. This type of testing is especially helpful in determining the type of dementia at an early stage.

Brain scans

By looking at images of the brain, doctors may be able to pinpoint any visible abnormalities — such as clots, bleeding or tumors — that may be causing signs and symptoms.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An MRI machine uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce detailed images of your brain.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET). PET scans use a small amount of low-dose radioactive material that's injected into a vein to help visualize blood sugar metabolism in the brain, which can help identify frontal or temporal lobe brain abnormalities.

Treatment

Frontotemporal dementia can't be cured. There is no effective way to slow its progression. Treatment involves managing the symptoms.

Medications

  • Antidepressants. Some types of antidepressants, such as trazodone, may reduce the behavioral problems associated with frontotemporal dementia.

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) — such as sertraline (Zoloft) or fluvoxamine (Luvox) — also have been effective in some people.

  • Antipsychotics. Antipsychotic medications, such as olanzapine (Zyprexa) or quetiapine (Seroquel), are sometimes used to combat the behavioral problems of frontotemporal dementia.

    However, these medications must be used with caution because the side effects include an increased risk of death in dementia patients.

Therapy

People experiencing language difficulties may benefit from speech therapy to learn alternate strategies for communication.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Lifestyle and home remedies

You'll need to have caregivers as your condition progresses, to assist with daily life activities, maintain your safety, provide transportation and help with finances.

Your doctor will discuss lifestyle changes with you, such as when you may need to stop driving a car.

Regular cardiovascular exercise may help improve your mood and thinking skills.

It may be helpful to make some adjustments in your home to make daily living tasks easier and reduce your chance of injuries, such as removing rugs or raising toilets.

In some cases, caregivers can reduce behavior problems by changing the way they interact with people with dementia. Examples include:

  • Avoiding events or activities that trigger the undesirable behavior
  • Anticipating needs and meeting them promptly
  • Maintaining a calm environment
  • Providing structured routines
  • Simplifying daily tasks
  • Using humor

Coping and support

If you've been diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia, receiving support, care and compassion from people you trust can be invaluable.

Through your doctor or the internet, find a support group for people with frontotemporal dementia. A support group can provide valuable information tailored for your needs as well as a forum that gives you the opportunity to share your experiences and feelings.

For caregivers

Caring for someone with frontotemporal dementia can be challenging and stressful because of the extreme personality changes and behavioral problems that often develop. It may be helpful to educate others about behavioral symptoms and what they can expect when spending time with your loved one.

Caregivers need assistance from family members, friends and support groups, or respite care provided by adult care centers or home health care agencies.

Caregivers should remember to take care of their health, exercise, eat a healthy diet and manage their stress. Participating in hobbies outside the home may help ease some stress. It may be helpful to educate others about behavioral symptoms and what they can expect when spending time with your loved one.

When a person with frontotemporal dementia requires 24-hour care, most families turn to nursing homes. Plans made ahead of time will make this transition easier and may allow the person to be involved in the decision-making process.

Preparing for your appointment

People with frontotemporal dementia often don't recognize that they have a problem. In many cases, family members are the ones who notice the symptoms and arrange for a doctor's appointment.

Your family doctor may refer you to a doctor trained in nervous system conditions (neurologist) or mental health conditions (psychologist) for further evaluation.

What you can do

Because you may not be aware of all your signs and symptoms, it's a good idea to take a family member or close friend along with you to the doctor's appointment. You may also want to take a written list that includes:

  • Detailed descriptions of your symptoms
  • Information about medical conditions you've had in the past
  • Information about medical conditions of your parents or siblings
  • All the medications and dietary supplements you take
  • Questions you want to ask the doctor

What to expect from your doctor

In addition to a physical exam, your doctor may also check your neurological health by testing your:

  • Reflexes
  • Muscle strength
  • Muscle tone
  • Senses of touch and sight
  • Coordination
  • Balance

During the appointment, your doctor might also conduct a brief mental status evaluation, which may assess:

  • Memory
  • Problem-solving abilities
  • Attention span
  • Counting skills
  • Language usage

Frontotemporal dementia care at Mayo Clinic

Oct. 29, 2016
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