There is currently no way to definitively diagnose CTE during life. But experts have developed clinical criteria for traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES). TES is a clinical disorder associated with CTE. CTE is suspected in people who are at high risk due to repeated head trauma over years during sports or military experiences. A diagnosis requires evidence of degeneration of brain tissue and deposits of tau and other proteins in the brain. This can only be seen after death during an autopsy.

Some researchers are actively trying to find a test for CTE that can be used while people are alive. Others continue to study the brains of deceased individuals who may have had CTE, such as U.S. football players.

The hope is to eventually use neuropsychological tests, brain imaging such as specialized MRIs, and other biomarkers to diagnose CTE.


There is no treatment for CTE. The brain disorder is progressive, which means it continues to get worse over time. More research on treatments is needed, but the current approach is to prevent head injury. It's also important to stay informed about how to detect and manage traumatic brain injury.

Preparing for your appointment

You'll probably start by seeing your primary care provider. Your provider may refer you to a neurologist, psychiatrist, neuropsychologist or other specialist for further evaluation.

Because appointments can be brief and there's often a lot to discuss, prepare before your appointment.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance. Ask if you need to fast for blood tests.
  • Write down any symptoms, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason you scheduled the appointment. Your health care provider will likely want to know details about your concern for your mental function. Try to remember when you first started to suspect that something might be wrong. If you think your symptoms are getting worse, be ready to explain why. Be prepared to discuss specific examples.
  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medicines, vitamins or supplements that you're taking.
  • Make a list of your other medical conditions. Include conditions you are currently being treated for, such as diabetes or heart disease. And list any conditions you've had in the past, such as strokes.
  • Take a family member, friend or caregiver along, if possible. Sometimes it can be hard to recall all the information provided during an appointment. Someone who comes with you may remember something that you missed or forgot.

Preparing a list of questions can help make the most of your time with the health care provider. List your questions from most important to least important. Some basic questions to ask the doctor include:

  • What is likely causing my symptoms?
  • Are there other possible causes for my symptoms?
  • What kinds of tests are needed?
  • Is my condition likely temporary or long-lasting? How will it likely progress over time?
  • What's the best course of action?
  • What are the alternatives to the primary approach being suggested?
  • I have other medical issues. How can they be managed together?
  • Are there any clinical trials of experimental treatments I should consider?
  • Are there any restrictions?
  • If medicine is being prescribed, is there a potential interaction with other medicines I am taking?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend?
  • Do I need to see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it? You may need to call your insurance provider for some of these answers.

If you've had a concussion, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What is the risk of future concussions?
  • When will it be safe to return to competitive sports?
  • When will it be safe to resume vigorous exercise?
  • Is it safe to return to school or work?
  • Is it safe to drive a car or operate power equipment?

Don't hesitate to ask questions during your appointment at any time that you don't understand something.

What to expect from your doctor

Your health care provider may ask you a variety of questions.

Questions related to symptoms:

  • What symptoms are you experiencing? Any trouble with word use, memory, focus, personality or directions?
  • When did symptoms begin?
  • Are symptoms steadily worsening, or are they sometimes better and sometimes worse?
  • How severe are symptoms?
  • Have you stopped doing certain activities, such as managing finances or shopping, because of trouble thinking through them?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve or worsen symptoms?
  • Have you noticed any changes in the way you tend to react to people or events?
  • Do you have more energy than usual, less than usual or about the same?
  • Have you noticed any trembling or trouble walking?

Questions related to health history:

  • Have you had your hearing and vision tested recently?
  • Is there a family history of dementia or other neurological disease such as Alzheimer's, ALS or Parkinson's disease?
  • What medicines are you taking? Are you taking any vitamins or supplements?
  • Do you drink alcohol? How much?
  • What other medical conditions are you being treated for?

If you've had a concussion, your doctor may ask questions related to events surrounding the injury:

  • Have you had any previous head injuries?
  • Do you play contact sports?
  • How did you get this injury?
  • What symptoms did you experience immediately after the injury?
  • Do you remember what happened right before and after the injury?
  • Did you lose consciousness after the injury?
  • Did you have seizures?

Questions related to physical symptoms:

  • Have you experienced nausea or vomiting since the injury?
  • Have you been experiencing headaches? How soon after the injury did the headaches start?
  • Have you noticed any difficulty with physical coordination since the injury?
  • Have you noticed any sensitivity or problems with your vision and hearing?
  • Have you noticed changes in your sense of smell or taste?
  • How is your appetite?
  • Have you felt lethargic or easily fatigued since the injury?
  • Are you having trouble sleeping or waking from sleep?
  • Do you have any dizziness or vertigo?

Questions related to cognitive or emotional signs and symptoms:

  • Have you had any problems with memory or concentration since the injury?
  • Have you had any mood changes, including irritability, anxiety or depression?
  • Have you had any thoughts about hurting yourself or others?
  • Have you noticed or have others commented that your personality has changed?
  • What other symptoms are you concerned about?

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy care at Mayo Clinic

Nov. 18, 2023
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