Diagnosis

To diagnose CGD, your doctor will review your family and medical history and conduct a physical exam. Your doctor may order several tests to diagnose CGD, including:

  • Neutrophil function tests. Your doctor may conduct a dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) test or other tests to see how well a type of white blood cell (neutrophil) in your blood is functioning. Doctors usually use this test to diagnose CGD.
  • Genetic testing. Your doctor may request a genetic test to confirm the presence of a specific genetic mutation that results in chronic granulomatous disease.
  • Prenatal testing. Doctors may conduct prenatal testing to diagnose CGD if one of your children already has been diagnosed with CGD.

Treatment

Treatment for CGD is aimed at helping you avoid infections and manage your condition. Treatments may include:

  • Infection management. Your doctor will work to prevent bacterial and fungal infections before they occur. Treatment may include continuous antibiotic therapy, such as trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole combination (Bactrim, Sulfatrim Pediatric) to protect against bacterial infections, and itraconazole (Sporanox, Tolsura) to prevent fungal infection. Additional antibiotics or antifungal medications may be necessary should infection occur.
  • Interferon-gamma. You may have interferon-gamma injections periodically, which may help boost cells in your immune system to fight infections.
  • Stem cell transplantation. In some cases, a stem cell transplant can provide a cure for CGD. Deciding to treat with stem cell transplantation depends on a number of factors, including prognosis, donor availability and personal preference.

Potential future treatments

Gene therapy is currently being explored for CGD treatment, but further research is necessary.

Researchers are also investigating repairing defective genes to treat CGD.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Chronic granulomatous disease care at Mayo Clinic

Feb. 18, 2020
  1. Zerbe CS, et al. Chronic granulomatous disease: Pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan.13, 2020.
  2. Chronic granulomatous disease. Genetics Home Reference. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/chronic-granulomatous-disease?_ga=1.168947753.905232672.1468720729. Accessed Jan. 13, 2020.
  3. Chronic granulomatous disease. National Organization for Rare Disorders. https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/chronic-granulomatous-disease/. Accessed Jan. 13, 2020.
  4. Rosenzweig SD, et al. Chronic granulomatous disease: Treatment and prognosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 13, 2020.
  5. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/immunology-allergic-disorders/immunodeficiency-disorders/chronic-granulomatous-disease-cgd. Accessed Jan. 13, 2020.
  6. Brown A. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic. Nov. 14, 2019.
  7. Keller MD, et al. Future of care for patients with chronic granulomatous disease: Gene therapy and targeted molecular medicine. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. 2018; doi:10.1093/jpids/piy011.
  8. Jeffrey Modell Foundation. http://www.info4pi.org/information-booth/find-an-expert. Accessed Jan. 13, 2020.

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