Diagnosis

To diagnose anemia, your doctor is likely to ask you about your medical and family history, perform a physical exam, and run the following tests:

  • Complete blood count (CBC). A CBC is used to count the number of blood cells in a sample of your blood. For anemia, your doctor will likely be interested in the levels of the red blood cells contained in your blood (hematocrit) and the hemoglobin in your blood.

    Healthy adult hematocrit values are generally between 38.3% and 48.6% for men and 35.5% and 44.9% for women. Healthy adult hemoglobin values are generally 13.2 to 16.6 grams per deciliter for men and 11.6 to 15 grams per deciliter for women. These values may differ slightly from one medical practice to another.

    Numbers might be lower for people who engage in intense physical activity, are pregnant or of older age. Smoking and being at high altitude might increase numbers.

  • A test to determine the size and shape of your red blood cells. Some of your red blood cells might also be examined for unusual size, shape and color.

Additional diagnostic tests

If you receive a diagnosis of anemia, your doctor might order other tests to determine the cause. Occasionally, it can be necessary to study a sample of your bone marrow to diagnose anemia.

Treatment

Anemia treatment depends on the cause.

  • Iron deficiency anemia. Treatment for this form of anemia usually involves taking iron supplements and changing your diet. For some people, this might involve receiving iron through a vein.

    If the cause of iron deficiency is loss of blood — other than from menstruation — the source of the bleeding must be located and the bleeding stopped. This might involve surgery.

  • Vitamin deficiency anemias. Treatment for folic acid and vitamin C deficiency involves dietary supplements and increasing these nutrients in your diet.

    If your digestive system has trouble absorbing vitamin B-12 from the food you eat, you might need vitamin B-12 shots. At first, you might have the shots every other day. Eventually, you'll need shots just once a month, possibly for life, depending on your situation.

  • Anemia of chronic disease. There's no specific treatment for this type of anemia. Doctors focus on treating the underlying disease. If symptoms become severe, a blood transfusion or injections of a synthetic hormone normally produced by your kidneys (erythropoietin) might help stimulate red blood cell production and ease fatigue.
  • Aplastic anemia. Treatment for this anemia can include blood transfusions to boost levels of red blood cells. You might need a bone marrow transplant if your bone marrow can't make healthy blood cells.
  • Anemias associated with bone marrow disease. Treatment of these various diseases can include medication, chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.
  • Hemolytic anemias. Managing hemolytic anemias includes avoiding suspect medications, treating infections and taking drugs that suppress your immune system, which could be attacking your red blood cells. Severe hemolytic anemia generally needs ongoing treatment.
  • Sickle cell anemia. Treatment might include oxygen, pain relievers, and oral and intravenous fluids to reduce pain and prevent complications. Doctors might also recommend blood transfusions, folic acid supplements and antibiotics. A cancer drug called hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea, Siklos) also is used to treat sickle cell anemia.
  • Thalassemia. Most forms of thalassemia are mild and require no treatment. More-severe forms of thalassemia generally require blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, medication, removal of the spleen, or a blood and bone marrow stem cell transplant.

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Preparing for your appointment

Make an appointment with your primary care doctor if you have prolonged fatigue or other signs or symptoms that worry you. He or she may refer you to a doctor who specializes in treating blood disorders (hematologist), the heart (cardiologist) or the digestive system (gastroenterologist).

Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment.

What you can do

Before your appointment, make a list of:

  • Your symptoms and when they began
  • Key personal information, including major stresses, implanted medical devices, exposure to toxins or chemicals, and recent life changes
  • All medications, vitamins and other supplements you take, including the doses
  • Questions to ask your doctor

For anemia, basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?
  • Are there other possible causes?
  • Do I need tests?
  • Is my anemia likely temporary or long lasting?
  • What treatments are available, and which do you recommend?
  • What side effects can I expect from treatment?
  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
  • Do I need to restrict my diet?
  • Do I need to add foods to my diet? How often do I need to eat these foods?
  • Do you have brochures or other printed materials I can take? What websites do you recommend?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you questions, such as:

  • Do your symptoms come and go or are they constant?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • Does anything seem to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?
  • Are you a vegetarian?
  • How many servings of fruits and vegetables do you usually eat in a day?
  • Do you drink alcohol? If so, how often, and how many drinks do you usually have?
  • Are you a smoker?
  • Have you recently donated blood more than once?

Anemia care at Mayo Clinic

Feb. 11, 2022

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  2. Marx JA, et al., eds. Anemia, polycythemia and white blood cell disorders. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 30, 2015.
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  7. Dietary supplement fact sheet: Folate. Office of Dietary Supplements. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Folate-HealthProfessional/. Accessed Nov. 30, 2015.
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  9. Benz EJ. Treatment of beta thalassemia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 4, 2015.
  10. Field JJ et al. Overview of the management and prognosis of sickle cell disease. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 4, 2015.
  11. Lichtman MA, et al. Structure of the marrow and the hematopoietic microenvironment. In: Williams Hematology. 8th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2010. http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=358&sectionid=39835818. Accessed Dec. 4, 2015.
  12. Hoffman R, et al. Hematologic aspects of parasitic diseases. In: Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Nov. 30, 2015.
  13. Kassebaum NJ, et al. A systematic analysis of global anemia burden from 1990 to 2010. Blood. 2014;123:615.
  14. Berns JS. Anemia of chronic kidney disease: Target hemoglobin/hematocrit for patients treated with erythropoietic agents. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 8, 2015.
  15. Stabler SP. Vitamin B12 deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine. 2013;368:149.
  16. Anemia and older adults. American Society of Hematology. http://www.hematology.org/Patients/Anemia/Adults.aspx. Accessed Dec. 9, 2015.

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