概述

主动脉瓣疾病意味着位于心脏主泵室(左心室)和身体主要动脉(主动脉)之间的瓣膜无法正常工作。主动脉瓣疾病可能出生时即患有(先天性心脏病),也可能由其他因素引起。

主动脉瓣疾病的类型包括:

症状

部分主动脉瓣疾病患者可能很多年都没有出现症状。主动脉瓣疾病的体征和症状可能包括:

  • 通过听诊器能听到心音异常(心脏杂音)
  • 气短,在进行剧烈运动或躺下时尤为明显
  • 头晕
  • 昏厥
  • 胸部疼痛或绷紧
  • 心跳不规则
  • 运动后疲劳或缺乏运动能力
  • 饮食不足(主要见于患主动脉瓣狭窄的儿童)
  • 体重增加不足(主要见于患主动脉瓣狭窄的儿童)

何时就诊

如果您有心脏杂音,您的医生可能建议您看心脏科医生或进行一项名为超声心动图(心脏超声)的检查。如果您出现可能提示主动脉瓣疾病的症状,应就医。

病因

正常心脏有四个瓣膜,确保血液沿正确方向流动。这些瓣膜包括二尖瓣、三尖瓣、肺动脉瓣和主动脉瓣。每个瓣膜都有瓣(尖瓣或小叶),每一次心跳便张开和闭合一次。瓣膜有时开合失常,会干扰流经心脏的血液,并有可能损害将血液泵送到全身的能力。

主动脉瓣介于左下心腔(左心室)与负责将血液从心脏输送到身体的主动脉之间。主动脉瓣无法正常工作即为主动脉瓣疾病。这可能是主动脉瓣无法正确闭合,导致血液渗漏回左心室(反流);也可能是瓣膜变窄(狭窄)。

主动脉瓣疾病可能是由出生时的心脏缺陷引起(先天性)。也可能由其他情况引起,包括与年龄相关的心脏变化、感染、高血压或心脏损伤。

Each valve has flaps (cusps or leaflets) that open and close once during each heartbeat. Sometimes, a valve doesn't open or close properly. This can reduce or block blood flow through the heart to the rest of the body.

In aortic valve disease, the valve between the lower left heart chamber (left ventricle) and the body's main artery (aorta) doesn't work properly. The valve may be thickened and stiff (stenosis) or it may not close properly, causing blood to flow backward.

风险因素

主动脉瓣疾病的风险因素包括:

  • 年龄较大
  • 出生时患有某些心脏疾病(先天性心脏病)
  • 可影响心脏的感染史
  • 慢性肾病
  • 胸部放疗史

并发症

主动脉瓣疾病可能引起并发症,包括:

  • 心力衰竭
  • 卒中
  • 血凝块
  • 心律异常
  • 死亡

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

July 02, 2022
  1. Bonow RO, et al., eds. Aortic valve disease. In: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Saunders Elsevier; 2019. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 7, 2019.
  2. Buji LM, et al., eds. Valvular heart disease. In: Cardiovascular Pathology. 4th ed. Elsevier Academic Press; 2016. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 7, 2019.
  3. Crawford MH, ed. Aortic stenosis. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Cardiology. 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2017. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Aug. 7, 2019.
  4. Crawford MH, ed. Aortic regurgitation. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Cardiology. 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2017. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Aug. 7, 2019.
  5. Fuster V, et al., eds. Aortic valve disease. In: Hurst's the Heart. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill Education; 2017. https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com. Accessed Aug. 7, 2019.
  6. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Heart-healthy lifestyle changes. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/heart-healthy-lifestyle-changes. Accessed Aug. 15, 2019.