Descripción general

Los tumores de los nervios periféricos son crecimientos de tejido que se forman en las hebras de tejido (nervios), o cerca de estas, y que transmiten señales eléctricas del cerebro al resto del cuerpo. Los nervios periféricos unen el cerebro y la médula espinal con otras partes del cuerpo.

Los tumores de los nervios periféricos pueden formarse en cualquier parte del cuerpo. Pueden ser no cancerosos (benignos) o cancerosos (malignos).

Los signos y síntomas de los tumores de los nervios periféricos dependen del lugar donde aparece el tumor, pero pueden consistir en hinchazón o un bulto debajo de la piel donde se forma el tumor. Estos tumores pueden causar dolor o la pérdida de la función de la zona afectada.

Tipos

Síntomas

The symptoms and signs of a peripheral nerve tumor develop from direct effects on the main nerve or from the tumor pressing on nearby nerves, blood vessels or tissues. As the tumor grows, it may be more likely to cause signs and symptoms, although tumor size doesn't always determine effects.

Signs and symptoms of peripheral nerve tumors vary depending on the location of the tumors and which tissues are affected. They include:

  • Swelling or a lump under your skin
  • Pain, tingling or numbness
  • Weakness or loss of function in the affected area
  • Dizziness or loss of balance

When to see a doctor

See your doctor when you have any of the symptoms listed, especially if you have a lump that grows rapidly.

Causas

It's not clear why most peripheral nerve tumors develop. Some are linked to known inherited syndromes, such as neurofibromatosis (types 1 and 2) and schwannomatosis. Others may be caused by a malfunctioning gene or triggered by injury or surgery.

Factores de riesgo

Peripheral nerve tumors are more common in people who have:

  • Neurofibromatosis (types 1 and 2) and schwannomatosis. In these disorders, tumors develop on or near the nerves throughout the body. These tumors, which are frequently multiple, can lead to a variety of symptoms and signs depending on their location. These tumors are usually noncancerous.
  • A history of radiation treatment. If you were exposed to radiation, you are at increased risk of peripheral nerve tumors years later.

Complicaciones

Both noncancerous and cancerous peripheral nerve tumors can compress nerves, leading to complications, some of which may be permanent:

  • Numbness and weakness in the affected area
  • Loss of function in the affected area
  • Difficulties with balance
  • Pain

Tumores en los nervios periféricos care at Mayo Clinic

Aug. 16, 2017
References
  1. Gilchrist JM, et al. Peripheral nerve tumors (Tumores en los nervios periféricos). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Último acceso: 28 de octubre de 2016.
  2. Montano N, et al. Tumors of the peripheral nervous system: Analysis of prognostic factors in a series with long-term follow-up and review of the literature (Tumores del sistema nervioso periférico: análisis de factores pronóstico en serie con seguimiento a largo plazo y revisión de la bibliografía). Journal of Neurosurgery (Revista de Neurocirugía). 2016;125:363.
  3. Riggin ER. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. 28 de octubre de 2016.