概述

周围神经肿瘤是指将信号从脑部传输到身体其他部分的股状组织(神经)内部或附近的生长。这些神经控制肌肉,让您能够行走、眨眼、吞咽、捡起物品和完成其他活动。

周围神经肿瘤可能出现在身体的任何部位。它们大多数不是癌性(恶性)肿瘤,但是可能导致受影响区域疼痛、神经损伤和丧失机能。

周围神经肿瘤的治疗通常涉及通过外科手术切除肿瘤。有时,切除神经肿瘤会损伤附近的健康组织。在这些情况下,可能会建议使用其他治疗方法。

周围神经肿瘤有多种类型。这些肿瘤通过在神经内部生长(硬膜内肿瘤)或压迫神经(硬膜外肿瘤)来对神经产生影响。

Types

症状

周围神经瘤的症状和体征源于对主神经的直接作用或压迫附近神经、血管或组织的肿瘤。肿瘤不断生长后可能更容易引起体征和症状,但肿瘤大小并非总会决定影响。

周围神经瘤的体征和症状取决于肿瘤的位置和受影响的组织。其中包括:

  • 皮肤下肿胀或肿块
  • 疼痛、麻刺感或麻木感
  • 受累区域无力或功能丧失
  • 头晕或失去平衡

何时就诊

当您出现任何所列症状,尤其是如果您有肿块迅速增长时,请就诊。

病因

目前尚不清楚大多数周围神经瘤的形成原因。有些与已知的遗传性综合征有关,例如神经纤维瘤病(1 型和 2 型)和神经鞘瘤病。其他一些可能由基因功能异常所造成,或由损伤或外科手术所引发。

风险因素

周围神经瘤在以下人群中更常见:

  • 神经纤维瘤病(1 型和 2 型)和神经鞘瘤病。在这些疾病中,肿瘤在整个身体的神经上或附近发展。这些肿瘤通常是多发性的,根据肿瘤位置可能导致多种症状和体征。这些肿瘤通常是非癌性的。
  • 放射治疗史。如果接受过放射治疗,多年后您患周围神经瘤的风险会增加。

并发症

非癌性和癌性周围神经瘤可能压迫神经,引起并发症,其中有些并发症可能是永久性的:

  • 受累区域麻木、无力
  • 受累区域丧失功能
  • 平衡困难
  • 疼痛

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

June 23, 2022
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