Diagnosis

Diagnosing skin cancer

To diagnose skin cancer, your doctor may:

  • Examine your skin. Your doctor may look at your skin to determine whether your skin changes are likely to be skin cancer. Further testing may be needed to confirm that diagnosis.
  • Remove a sample of suspicious skin for testing (skin biopsy). Your doctor may remove the suspicious-looking skin for lab testing. A biopsy can determine whether you have skin cancer and, if so, what type of skin cancer you have.

Determining the extent of the skin cancer

If your doctor determines you have skin cancer, you may have additional tests to determine the extent (stage) of the skin cancer.

Because superficial skin cancers such as basal cell carcinoma rarely spread, a biopsy which removes the entire growth often is the only test needed to determine the cancer stage. But if you have a large squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma or melanoma, your doctor may recommend further tests to determine the extent of the cancer.

Additional tests might include imaging tests to examine the nearby lymph nodes for signs of cancer or a procedure to remove a nearby lymph node and test it for signs of cancer (sentinel lymph node biopsy).

Doctors use the Roman numerals I through IV to indicate a cancer's stage. Stage I cancers are small and limited to the area where they began. Stage IV indicates advanced cancer that has spread to other areas of the body.

The skin cancer's stage helps determine which treatment options will be most effective.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Preparing for your appointment

Make an appointment with your family doctor or a general practitioner if you notice any unusual skin changes that worry you. In some cases, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in skin diseases and conditions (dermatologist).

Because appointments can be brief, and because there's often a lot of ground to cover, it's a good idea to be well-prepared. Here's some information to help you get ready, and know what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as restrict your diet.
  • Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
  • Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements that you're taking.
  • Consider taking a family member or friend along. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all the information provided during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time with your doctor is limited, so preparing a list of questions can help you make the most of your time together. List your questions from most important to least important in case time runs out. For skin cancer, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • Do I have skin cancer?
  • What type of skin cancer do I have?
  • Will I need additional tests?
  • How quickly does my type of skin cancer grow and spread?
  • What are my treatment options?
  • What are the potential risks of each treatment?
  • Will surgery leave a scar?
  • Do I have an increased risk of additional skin cancers?
  • How can I reduce my risk of additional skin cancers?
  • Should I have regular skin exams to check for additional skin cancers?
  • Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it?
  • Is there a generic alternative to the medicine you're prescribing for me?
  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?
  • What will determine whether I should plan for a follow-up visit?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask other questions that occur to you.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may allow time to cover other points you want to address. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first notice your skin changes?
  • Have you noticed a skin lesion that has grown or changed?
  • Do you have a skin lesion that bleeds or itches?
  • How severe are your symptoms?

Skin cancer care at Mayo Clinic

June 10, 2015
References
  1. What you need to know about skin cancer. National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/wyntk-skin-cancer. Accessed April 22, 2015.
  2. Habif TP. Premalignant and malignant nonmelanoma skin tumors. In: Clinical Dermatology: A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy. 5th ed. Edinburgh, U.K.: Mosby Elsevier; 2010. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 22, 2015.
  3. Niederhuber JE, et al., eds. Melanoma. In: Abeloff's Clinical Oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 22, 2015.
  4. Kaposi sarcoma treatment (PDQ). National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/kaposis/HealthProfessional. Accessed April 22, 2015.