Diagnosis

Diarrhea and bloody diarrhea can result from a number of diseases. Confirming shigellosis involves taking a sample of your stool to be tested in a laboratory for the presence of shigella bacteria or their toxins.

Treatment

Shigella infection usually runs its course in five to seven days. Replacing lost fluids from diarrhea may be all the treatment you need, particularly if your general health is good and your shigella infection is mild.

Avoid drugs intended to treat diarrhea, such as loperamide (Imodium) or atropine (Lomotil), because they can make your condition worse.

Antibiotics

For severe shigella infection, antibiotics may shorten the duration of the illness. However, some shigella bacteria have become drug resistant. So it's better not to take antibiotics unless your shigella infection is severe.

Antibiotics may also be necessary for infants, older adults and people who have HIV infection, as well as in situations where there's a high risk of spreading the disease.

Fluid and salt replacement

For generally healthy adults, drinking water may be enough to counteract the dehydrating effects of diarrhea.

Children may benefit from an oral rehydration solution, such as Pedialyte, available in drugstores. Many pharmacies carry their own brands.

Children and adults who are severely dehydrated need treatment in a hospital emergency room, where they can receive salts and fluids through a vein (intravenously), rather than by mouth. Intravenous hydration provides the body with water and essential nutrients much more quickly than oral solutions do.

Preparing for your appointment

Most people who have shigella infection get well on their own and don't need to see a doctor. If you or your child has severe symptoms or a high fever, you may need treatment.

What you can do

Before talking with your doctor, you may want to write a list of answers to the following questions:

  • What are the symptoms?
  • When did the symptoms start?
  • Have you or your child been exposed to shigella infection?
  • Do you or your child have a fever? If so, how high is it?

What to expect from your doctor

During the physical exam, your doctor may press on various parts of your abdomen to check for pain or tenderness. He or she may also use a cotton swab to obtain a stool culture or send you home with instructions for collecting and transporting a sample of your stool so it can be tested for evidence of infection.

Aug. 04, 2018
References
  1. Ferri FF. Shigellosis. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 17, 2015.
  2. DuPont HL. Bacillary dysentery. In: Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 17, 2015.
  3. Marx JA, et al. Infectious diarrheal disease and dehydration. In: Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed June 17, 2015.
  4. Bowen A, et al. The Yellow Book 2014: CDC health information for international travel. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2014/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/shigellosis. Accessed June 17, 2015.
  5. Shigella – shigellosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/shigella/index.html. Accessed June 17, 2015.
  6. Shigella infections among gay & bisexual men. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/shigella/msm.html. Accessed June 17, 2015.
  7. Information for parents of young children. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/shigella/audience-parents.html. July 18, 2018.