Technician comforting patient in MRI scanner

MRI scan

To diagnosis a peripheral nerve tumor, your doctor may ask you about signs and symptoms, discuss your medical history, and perform both a general physical and neurological exam. He or she may order several tests to help pinpoint the cause of your signs and symptoms.

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This scan uses a magnet and radio waves to produce a detailed, 3-D view of your nerves and surrounding tissue.
  • Computerized tomography (CT). A CT scanner rotates around your body to record a series of images. A computer uses the images to make a detailed view of your peripheral nerve tumor so that your doctor can evaluate how it may be affecting you.
  • Electromyogram (EMG). For this test, your doctor places small needles in your muscles so an electromyography instrument can record the electrical activity in your muscle as you try to move it.
  • Nerve conduction study. You're likely to have this test along with your EMG. It measures how quickly your nerves carry electrical signals to your muscles.
  • Tumor biopsy. If imaging tests identify a nerve tumor, your doctor may remove and analyze a small sample of cells (biopsy) from your tumor. Depending on the tumor's size and location, you may need local or general anesthesia during the biopsy. Sometimes this is the only way to determine whether a tumor is cancerous.
  • Nerve biopsy. If you have a condition such as progressive peripheral neuropathy or enlarged nerves that mimic nerve tumors, your doctor may take a nerve biopsy.

Peripheral nerve tumors are uncommon. Ask your doctor if he or she is experienced in diagnosing and treating them. If needed, seek a second opinion.


Peripheral nerve tumor surgical consultation at Mayo Clinic Peripheral nerve tumor surgical consultation at Mayo Clinic

At Mayo Clinic, your surgeon will talk with you about the procedure beforehand and answer any questions you may have.

Your peripheral nerve tumor treatment depends on the type of tumor you have, what nerves and other tissues it affects, and your symptoms. Treatment options for peripheral nerve tumors include:


Waiting and watching to see if the tumor grows may be an option if it's in a place that makes removal difficult or if the tumor is small, slow growing, and causes few or no signs and symptoms. You'll have regular checkups and may undergo CT or MRI scans every few months to see if your tumor is growing.


You may need surgery to remove a peripheral nerve tumor. The goal of surgery is to remove the entire tumor without damaging nearby healthy tissue and nerves. When that isn't possible, surgeons remove as much of the tumor as they can.

New techniques and instruments allow neurosurgeons to reach tumors that were once considered inaccessible. The high-powered microscopes used in microsurgery make it easier to distinguish a tumor from healthy tissue. Doctors also can monitor the function of nerves during surgery, which helps preserve healthy tissue.

Depending on the location and size of your peripheral nerve tumor, surgery can cause nerve damage and disability. These risks are often based on the size and location of the tumor and the surgical approach used. Some tumors grow back.

Stereotactic radiosurgery

Your doctor may recommend stereotactic radiosurgery to treat some peripheral nerve tumors in or around the brain. In stereotactic radiosurgery, such as Gamma Knife radiosurgery, doctors deliver radiation precisely to a tumor without making an incision.

Risks of radiosurgery include weakness or numbness in the treated area and treatment failure (continued tumor growth). Very rarely, the radiation could cause a cancer in the treated area in the future.

Cancer treatment

Malignant tumors are treated with standard cancer therapies, such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment are the most important factors resulting in good outcome. Tumors may recur after treatment.


After surgery, you may need physical rehabilitation. Your doctor may use a brace or a splint to keep your arm or leg in a position that helps you to heal. Physical therapists and occupational therapists can help you recover function and mobility lost due to nerve damage or limb amputation.

Coping and support

Dealing with the possibility of permanent complications of peripheral nerve tumors and deciding which treatment would be best for you can be quite stressful. Here are some suggestions you may find helpful:

  • Educate yourself about peripheral nerve tumors. The more you know, the better prepared you'll be to make good choices about treatment. Besides talking to your doctor, you may want to talk to a counselor or a social worker. Or you may find it helpful to talk to other people who've had a condition like yours and learn more about their experiences during and after treatment.
  • Maintain a strong support system. Family and friends can help you as you go through this difficult time. Sometimes, though, you may find the concern and understanding of other people with a condition like yours especially comforting.

    Your doctor or a social worker may be able to put you in touch with a support group.

Preparing for your appointment

If your primary care doctor thinks you have a peripheral nerve tumor, he or she may refer you to a doctor who specializes in disorders of the nervous system (neurologist) or a doctor trained in brain and nervous system surgery (neurosurgeon).

What you can do

Before the appointment, you might want to prepare a list of answers to the following questions:

  • When did you first notice this problem?
  • Has it worsened with time?
  • Have your parents or siblings ever had similar symptoms?
  • Do you have other medical problems?
  • What medications or supplements do you take regularly?
  • What surgeries have you had?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask some of the following questions:

  • Do you have pain? Where is it?
  • Do you have any weakness, numbness or tingling?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • What treatments have you tried already for these problems?

Peripheral nerve tumors care at Mayo Clinic

July 15, 2020
  1. Gilchrist JM, et al. Peripheral nerve tumors. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Oct. 28, 2016.
  2. Montano N, et al. Tumors of the peripheral nervous system: Analysis of prognostic factors in a series with long-term follow-up and review of the literature. Journal of Neurosurgery. 2016;125:363.
  3. Riggin ER. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Oct. 28, 2016.
  4. Overview of peripheral nervous system disorders. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/peripheral-nervous-system-and-motor-unit-disorders/overview-of-peripheral-nervous-system-disorders. Accessed March 1, 2017.
  5. Ahlawat S, et al. Magnetic resonance neurography of peripheral nerve tumors and tumorlike conditions. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America. 2014;24:171.
  6. Klein CJ, et al. Genomic analysis reveals frequent TRAF7 mutations in intraneural perineuriomas. Annals of Neurology. 2017;81:316.
  7. Amrami KK, et al. Introduction: Imaging of peripheral nerves. Neurosurgical Focus. 2015;39:E1. http://thejns.org/doi/pdf/10.3171/2015.6.FOCUS15314. Accessed April 8, 2017.
  8. Spinner RJ, et al. The unifying articular (synovial) origin of intraneural ganglia: Evolution-revelation-revolution. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:A115.
  9. Capek S, et al. Perineural spread of pelvic malignancies to the lumbosacral plexus and beyond; Clinical and imaging patterns. Neurosurgical Focus. 2015;39:E14.
  10. Carlson ML, et al. Facial nerve schwannomas: Review of 80 cases over 25 years at Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2016;91:1563.
  11. Ducatman BS, et al. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors: A clinicopathologic study of 120 cases. Cancer. 1986;57:2006.
  12. Prasad, N, et al. Clinical anatomy leading the way for solutions: An important paradigm for translational research. Clinical Anatomy. 2016;29:978.
  13. Broski SM, et al. Evaluation of 18-F-FDG PET and MRi in differentiating benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Skelatal Radiology. 2016;45:1097.
  14. Babovic-Vuksanovic D, et al. Multiple orbital neurofibromas, painful peripheral nerve tumors, distinctive face and marfanoid habitus: A new syndrome. European Journal of Human Genetics. 2012;20:618.
  15. Radiation injury to the brain. International RadioSurgery Association. http://www.irsa.org/radiation_injury.html. Accessed April 11, 2017.
  16. Pope TL. Soft tissue tumors. In: Musculoskeletal Imaging. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 10, 2017.
  17. Goldblum JR, et al., eds. Benign tumors of peripheral nerves. In: Enzinger and Weiss's Soft Tissue Tumors. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2014. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 10, 2017.
  18. Koht A, et al. Neuromonitoring in surgery and anesthesia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April 11, 2017.
  19. Wise SC, et al. Surgical salvage of recurrent vestibular schwannoma following prior stereotactic radiosurgery. Laryngoscope. 2016;126:2580.
  20. Stucky CCH, et al. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST): The Mayo Clinic experience. Annals of Surgical Oncology. 2012;19:878.
  21. Spinner RJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. May 28, 2017.
  22. Stereotactic radiosurgery overview. International RadioSurgery Association. http://www.irsa.org/radiosurgery.html. Accessed April 11, 2017.


Associated Procedures

Products & Services