Usually a patent foramen ovale is diagnosed when tests are done for another health concern. If your health care provider thinks you may have a patent foramen ovale (PFO), imaging tests of the heart may be done.

If you have a patent foramen ovale and had a stroke, your provider may refer you to a doctor trained in brain and nervous system conditions. This type of provider is called a neurologist.


A test called an echocardiogram is used to diagnose a PFO. The test uses sound waves to create pictures of the beating heart. An echocardiogram shows the structure of the heart. It also shows how blood flows through the heart and heart valves.

Transthoracic echocardiogram

This is a standard echocardiogram. It takes pictures of the heart from outside the body. The health care provider presses an ultrasound device, called a transducer, firmly against the skin over the heart area. The device records the sound wave echoes from the heart. A computer changes the echoes into moving images.

Variations of this procedure may be used to identify a patent foramen ovale, including:

  • Color-Doppler. When sound waves bounce off blood cells moving through the heart, they change pitch. These changes are called Doppler signals. They appear in different colors on the echocardiogram. This test can show the speed and direction of blood flow in the heart.

    If you have a patent foramen ovale, this type of echocardiogram usually shows blood moving between the upper heart chambers.

  • Saline contrast study, also called a bubble study. During a standard echocardiogram, a sterile salt solution containing tiny bubbles is given by IV. The bubbles travel to the right side of the heart. They can be seen on an echocardiogram.

    If there's no hole between the upper heart chambers, the bubbles are filtered out in the lungs. If you have a patent foramen ovale, some bubbles show up on the left side of the heart.

Transesophageal echocardiogram

A patent foramen ovale may be difficult to confirm on a standard echocardiogram. Your provider may recommend this test to get a closer look at the heart.

A transesophageal echocardiogram takes pictures of the heart from inside the body. It's considered the most accurate way to diagnose a patent foramen ovale.

During this test, a flexible probe containing the ultrasound device is guided down the throat and into the tube connecting the mouth to the stomach. This tube is called the esophagus.


Most people with a patent foramen ovale don't need treatment. If a PFO is found when an echocardiogram is done for other reasons, a procedure to close the hole usually isn't done.

When treatment for a PFO is needed, it may include:

  • Medicines
  • A catheter procedure to close the hole
  • Surgery to close the hole


Your doctor may recommend medicines to try to reduce the risk of blood clots crossing a patent foramen ovale. Blood thinners may be helpful for some people with a patent foramen ovale who've had a stroke.

Surgery or other procedures

If you have a PFO and low blood oxygen levels or an unexplained stroke, you may need a procedure to close the hole.

Closure of a patent foramen ovale to prevent migraines isn't currently recommended as the first treatment. Closure of a patent foramen ovale to prevent recurrent stroke is only done after care providers trained in heart and nervous system disorders have said that the procedure will help you.

Procedures to close a patent foramen ovale include:

  • Device closure. In this procedure, the provider inserts a thin, flexible tube called a catheter into a blood vessel in the groin area. The catheter tip has a device to plug the PFO. The provider guides the equipment to the heart to close the opening.

    Complications of device closure are uncommon. They may include a tear of the heart or blood vessels, movement of the device, or irregular heartbeats.

  • Surgical closure. In this heart surgery, the surgeon uses stitches to close the PFO. This surgery can be done using a very small incision. It may be done using robotic techniques.

    If heart surgery is needed for another reason, your provider may recommend that this surgery be done at the same time.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition.

Self care

If you know you have a patent foramen ovale, but don't have symptoms, you probably won't have any restrictions on your activities.

If you'll be traveling long distances, it's important to follow recommendations for preventing blood clots. If you're traveling by car, take breaks and go for short walks. On an airplane, be sure to drink plenty of fluids and walk around whenever it's safe to do so.

Preparing for your appointment

After a patent foramen ovale has been diagnosed, you'll likely have a lot of questions for your health care providers. Some questions you may want to ask include:

  • What caused this to happen?
  • How dangerous is this condition?
  • What treatments are available? Which do you recommend?
  • What are the risks of a procedure to close the patent foramen ovale?
  • I have other health conditions. How can I best manage these conditions together?
  • Should activity be restricted in any way?
  • Could I have passed this condition on to my child?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home with me? What websites do you recommend visiting?

Oct 25, 2022

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