Obesity is a complex disease involving having too much body fat. Obesity isn't just a cosmetic concern. It's a medical problem that increases the risk of many other diseases and health problems. These can include heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, liver disease, sleep apnea and certain cancers.

There are many reasons why some people have trouble losing weight. Often, obesity results from inherited, physiological and environmental factors, combined with diet, physical activity and exercise choices.

The good news is that even modest weight loss can improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. A healthier diet, increased physical activity and behavior changes can help you lose weight. Prescription medicines and weight-loss procedures are other options for treating obesity.


Body mass index, known as BMI, is often used to diagnose obesity. To calculate BMI, multiply weight in pounds by 703, divide by height in inches and then divide again by height in inches. Or divide weight in kilograms by height in meters squared. There are several online calculators available that help calculate BMI.

See BMI calculator

BMI Weight status
Below 18.5 Underweight
18.5-24.9 Healthy
25.0-29.9 Overweight
30.0 and higher Obesity

Asians with a BMI of 23 or higher may have an increased risk of health problems.

For most people, BMI provides a reasonable estimate of body fat. However, BMI doesn't directly measure body fat. Some people, such as muscular athletes, may have a BMI in the obesity category even though they don't have excess body fat.

Many health care professionals also measure around a person's waist to help guide treatment decisions. This measurement is called a waist circumference. Weight-related health problems are more common in men with a waist circumference over 40 inches (102 centimeters). They're more common in women with a waist measurement over 35 inches (89 centimeters). Body fat percentage is another measurement that may be used during a weight loss program to track progress.

When to see a doctor

If you're concerned about your weight or weight-related health problems, ask your health care professional about obesity management. You and your health care team can evaluate your health risks and discuss your weight-loss options.

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Although there are genetic, behavioral, metabolic and hormonal influences on body weight, obesity occurs when you take in more calories than you burn through typical daily activities and exercise. Your body stores these excess calories as fat.

In the United States, most people's diets are too high in calories — often from fast food and high-calorie beverages. People with obesity might eat more calories before feeling full, feel hungry sooner, or eat more due to stress or anxiety.

Many people who live in Western countries now have jobs that are much less physically demanding, so they don't tend to burn as many calories at work. Even daily activities use fewer calories, courtesy of conveniences such as remote controls, escalators, online shopping, and drive-through restaurants and banks.

Risk factors

Obesity often results from a combination of causes and contributing factors:

Family inheritance and influences

The genes you inherit from your parents may affect the amount of body fat you store, and where that fat is distributed. Genetics also may play a role in how efficiently your body converts food into energy, how your body regulates your appetite and how your body burns calories during exercise.

Obesity tends to run in families. That's not just because of the genes they share. Family members also tend to share similar eating and activity habits.

Lifestyle choices

  • Unhealthy diet. A diet that's high in calories, lacking in fruits and vegetables, full of fast food, and laden with high-calorie beverages and oversized portions contributes to weight gain.
  • Liquid calories. People can drink many calories without feeling full, especially calories from alcohol. Other high-calorie beverages, such as sugared soft drinks, can contribute to weight gain.
  • Inactivity. If you have an inactive lifestyle, you can easily take in more calories every day than you burn through exercise and routine daily activities. Looking at computer, tablet and phone screens is inactivity. The number of hours spent in front of a screen is highly associated with weight gain.

Certain diseases and medications

In some people, obesity can be traced to a medical cause, such as hypothyroidism, Cushing syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome and other conditions. Medical problems, such as arthritis, also can lead to decreased activity, which may result in weight gain.

Some medicines can lead to weight gain if you don't compensate through diet or activity. These medicines include steroids, some antidepressants, anti-seizure medicines, diabetes medicines, antipsychotic medicines and certain beta blockers.

Social and economic issues

Social and economic factors are linked to obesity. It's hard to avoid obesity if you don't have safe areas to walk or exercise. You may not have learned healthy ways of cooking. Or you may not have access to healthier foods. Also, the people you spend time with may influence your weight. You're more likely to develop obesity if you have friends or relatives with obesity.


Obesity can occur at any age, even in young children. But as you age, hormonal changes and a less active lifestyle increase your risk of obesity. The amount of muscle in your body also tends to decrease with age. Lower muscle mass often leads to a decrease in metabolism. These changes also reduce calorie needs and can make it harder to keep off excess weight. If you don't consciously control what you eat and become more physically active as you age, you'll likely gain weight.

Other factors

  • Pregnancy. Weight gain is common during pregnancy. Some women find this weight difficult to lose after the baby is born. This weight gain may contribute to the development of obesity in women.
  • Quitting smoking. Quitting smoking is often associated with weight gain. And for some, it can lead to enough weight gain to qualify as obesity. Often, this happens as people use food to cope with smoking withdrawal. But overall, quitting smoking is still a greater benefit to your health than is continuing to smoke. Your health care team can help you prevent weight gain after quitting smoking.
  • Lack of sleep. Not getting enough sleep can cause changes in hormones that increase appetite. So can getting too much sleep. You also may crave foods high in calories and carbohydrates, which can contribute to weight gain.
  • Stress. Many external factors that affect mood and well-being may contribute to obesity. People often seek more high-calorie food during stressful situations.
  • Microbiome. The make-up of your gut bacteria is affected by what you eat and may contribute to weight gain or trouble losing weight.

Even if you have one or more of these risk factors, it doesn't mean that you're destined to develop obesity. You can counteract most risk factors through diet, physical activity and exercise. Behavior changes, medicines and procedures for obesity also can help.


People with obesity are more likely to develop a number of potentially serious health problems, including:

  • Heart disease and strokes. Obesity makes you more likely to have high blood pressure and unhealthy cholesterol levels, which are risk factors for heart disease and strokes.
  • Type 2 diabetes. Obesity can affect the way the body uses insulin to control blood sugar levels. This raises the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes.
  • Certain cancers. Obesity may increase the risk of cancer of the uterus, cervix, endometrium, ovary, breast, colon, rectum, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidney and prostate.
  • Digestive problems. Obesity increases the likelihood of developing heartburn, gallbladder disease and liver problems.
  • Sleep apnea. People with obesity are more likely to have sleep apnea, a potentially serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.
  • Osteoarthritis. Obesity increases the stress placed on weight-bearing joints. It also promotes inflammation, which includes swelling, pain and a feeling of heat within the body. These factors may lead to complications such as osteoarthritis.
  • Fatty liver disease. Obesity increases the risk of fatty liver disease, a condition that happens due to excessive fat deposit in the liver. In some cases, this can lead to serious liver damage, known as liver cirrhosis.
  • Severe COVID-19 symptoms. Obesity increases the risk of developing severe symptoms if you become infected with the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019, known as COVID-19. People who have severe cases of COVID-19 may need treatment in intensive care units or even mechanical assistance to breathe.

Quality of life

Obesity can diminish the overall quality of life. You may not be able to do physical activities that you used to enjoy. You may avoid public places. People with obesity may even encounter discrimination.

Other weight-related issues that may affect your quality of life include:

  • Depression.
  • Disability.
  • Shame and guilt.
  • Social isolation.
  • Lower work achievement.

July 22, 2023
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