Overview

A hip fracture is a serious injury, with complications that can be life-threatening. The risk of hip fracture rises with age.

Risk increases because bones tend to weaken with age (osteoporosis). Multiple medications, poor vision and balance problems also make older people more likely to fall — one of the most common causes of hip fracture.

A hip fracture almost always requires surgical repair or replacement, followed by physical therapy. Taking steps to maintain bone density and avoid falls can help prevent a hip fracture.

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Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of a hip fracture include:

  • Inability to get up from a fall or to walk
  • Severe pain in the hip or groin
  • Inability to put weight on the leg on the side of the injured hip
  • Bruising and swelling in and around the hip area
  • Shorter leg on the side of the injured hip
  • Outward turning of the leg on the side of the injured hip

Causes

A severe impact, such as a car crash, can cause hip fractures in people of all ages. In older adults, a hip fracture is most often a result of a fall from a standing height. In people with very weak bones, a hip fracture can occur simply by standing on the leg and twisting.

Risk factors

Many things can increase the risk of hip fractures.

Your age and sex

Bone density and muscle mass tend to decrease with age. Older people can also have problems with vision and balance, which can increase the risk of falling.

Hip fractures occur in women about three times more often than they do in men. Women lose bone density faster than men do, in part because the drop in estrogen levels that occurs with menopause accelerates bone loss. However, men also can develop dangerously low levels of bone density.

Medical conditions

The risk of hip fracture can be increased if you have:

  • Osteoporosis. This condition weakens bones and makes them more likely to break.
  • Thyroid problems. An overactive thyroid can lead to fragile bones.
  • Intestinal disorders. Conditions that reduce absorption of vitamin D and calcium also can cause weakened bones.
  • Problems with balance. Parkinson's disease, stroke and peripheral neuropathy can increase the risk of falling. Having low blood sugar or low blood pressure also can contribute to the risk of falls.

Certain medications

Cortisone medications, such as prednisone, can weaken bones if taken long-term. Certain drugs or certain combinations of medications can cause dizziness, which can increase the risk of falling. The most common drugs associated with falls include sleep medications, antipsychotics and sedatives.

Nutritional problems

Lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet of young people lowers peak bone mass and increases risk of fracture later in life. It's also important to get enough calcium and vitamin D in older age to try to maintain bone density. Being underweight also increases the risk of bone loss.

Lifestyle choices

Lack of regular weight-bearing exercise, such as walking, can result in weakened bones and muscles, making falls and fractures more likely.

Tobacco and alcohol both can interfere with the normal processes of bone building and maintenance, resulting in bone loss.

Complications

A hip fracture can reduce independence and sometimes shorten life. About half the people who have a hip fracture aren't able to regain the ability to live independently.

When hip fractures prevent movement for a long time, complications can include:

  • Blood clots in the legs or lungs
  • Bedsores
  • Pneumonia
  • Further loss of muscle mass, increasing the risk of falls and injuries
  • Death

Prevention

Healthy lifestyle choices in early adulthood build a higher peak bone mass and reduce the risk of osteoporosis in later years. The same measures adopted at any age might lower the risk of falls and improve overall health.

To avoid falls and to maintain healthy bone:

  • Get enough calcium and vitamin D. In general, men and women age 50 and older should consume 1,200 milligrams of calcium a day, and 600 international units of vitamin D a day.
  • Exercise to strengthen bones and improve balance. Weight-bearing exercises, such as walking, help maintain peak bone density. Exercise also increases overall strength, decreasing the risk of falling. Balance training also is important to reduce the risk of falls since balance tends to deteriorate with age.
  • Avoid smoking or excessive drinking. Tobacco and alcohol use can reduce bone density. Drinking too much alcohol can also impair balance and increase the risk of falling.
  • Assess the home for hazards. Remove throw rugs, keep electrical cords against the wall, and clear excess furniture and anything else that could trip people. Make sure all rooms and passageways are well lit.
  • Check your eyes. Have an eye exam every other year, or more often if you have diabetes or an eye disease.
  • Use a cane, walking stick or walker. If you don't feel steady when you walk, ask a health care provider or occupational therapist whether these aids might help.

May 05, 2022
  1. Morrison RS, et al. Hip fractures in adults: Epidemiology and medical management. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 4, 2022.
  2. Hip fractures. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. https://orthoinfo.aaos.org/en/diseases--conditions/hip-fractures. Accessed Jan. 4, 2022.
  3. Hip fractures among older adults. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adulthipfx.html. Accessed Jan. 4, 2022.
  4. Ackermann L, et al. Update on medical management of acute hip fracture. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine. 2021; doi:10.3949/ccjm.88a.20149.
  5. Alexiou KI, et al. Quality of life and psychological consequences in elderly patients after a hip fracture: A review. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2018; doi:10.2147/CIA.S150067.
  6. Ferri FF. Hip fracture. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2022. Elsevier; 2022. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 4, 2022.
  7. Hip fractures. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries-poisoning/fractures/hip-fractures. Accessed Jan. 6, 2022.
  8. Prevent falls and fractures. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/prevent-falls-and-fractures. Accessed Jan. 6, 2022.
  9. Healthy eating: Vitamins and minerals for older adults. National Institute on Aging. https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/vitamins-and-minerals-older-adults. Accessed Jan. 6, 2022.

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