Is acute hepatitis C infection serious?
Answer From Stacey A. Rizza, M.D.
Acute hepatitis C infection doesn't always lead to chronic hepatitis C infection. But because more than half of the people with the acute infection go on to develop chronic infection, acute hepatitis C is serious.
Acute hepatitis C can be treated, greatly reducing the risk of chronic infection. However, acute hepatitis C usually causes no symptoms, so diagnosis and treatment rarely occur.
Acute hepatitis C develops two weeks to six months after the hepatitis C virus enters your bloodstream. In the small number of people who get sick during the acute infection, signs and symptoms include:
- Yellowing of the skin (jaundice)
- Dark urine
- White-colored stool
- Pain in the upper right part of the abdomen
These signs and symptoms last for two to 12 weeks.
Most acute hepatitis C infections today occur in people who share needles to inject drugs. Health care workers who have needle-stick injuries also are at risk.
If you think you've recently been exposed to the hepatitis C virus, it's important to get tested right away. Blood tests to detect hepatitis C virus proteins, followed by a later test to detect antibodies to the virus, can usually distinguish acute from chronic infection. Knowing you have an acute hepatitis C infection may make a difference in the choice of treatment.
Stacey A. Rizza, M.D.
July 18, 2020
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See more Expert Answers
- Hepatitis C questions and answers for the public. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/hcv/cfaq.htm. Accessed June 22, 2020.
- Management of acute HCV infection. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and Infectious Diseases Society of America. https://www.hcvguidelines.org/unique-populations/acute-infection. Accessed June 22, 2020.
- Feld JJ. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of acute hepatitis C virus infection in adults. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed June 22, 2020.