Mayo Clinic's approach

Mayo Clinic's Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, one of the largest psychiatric treatment groups in the U.S., is a leader in the research and use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treatment-resistant depression.

The department offers:

  • Experience. Mayo Clinic experts have performed rTMS treatments for depression since 2002 as a part of nationwide research on this device. After approval by the FDA in 2008, Mayo Clinic was one of the first medical facilities in the U.S. to offer rTMS treatments for depression.
  • Teamwork. When rTMS is used, highly skilled specialists provide expert care, using a team approach.
  • Research. In addition to being a leading center for rTMS clinical trials to treat depression, Mayo Clinic continues to research rTMS for depression and other uses.

Expertise and rankings

Treatment expertise

Mayo Clinic psychiatrists have performed rTMS treatments since 2002, initially as part of nationwide research. The TMS research group was involved in the multicenter trial that led to FDA approval of this treatment technique in the U.S.

Nationally recognized expertise

Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, is ranked as one of the top psychiatry hospitals in the nation by U.S. News & World Report.

Learn more about Mayo Clinic's Department of Psychiatry and Psychology.

Locations, travel and lodging

Mayo Clinic has major campuses in Phoenix and Scottsdale, Arizona; Jacksonville, Florida; and Rochester, Minnesota. The Mayo Clinic Health System has dozens of locations in several states.

For more information on visiting Mayo Clinic, choose your location below:

Costs and insurance

Mayo Clinic works with hundreds of insurance companies and is an in-network provider for millions of people.

In most cases, Mayo Clinic doesn't require a physician referral. Some insurers require referrals, or may have additional requirements for certain medical care. All appointments are prioritized on the basis of medical need.

Learn more about appointments at Mayo Clinic.

Please contact your insurance company to verify medical coverage and to obtain any needed authorization prior to your visit. Often, your insurer's customer service number is printed on the back of your insurance card.

More information about billing and insurance:

Mayo Clinic in Arizona, Florida and Minnesota

Mayo Clinic Health System

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies of tests and procedures to help prevent, detect, treat or manage conditions.

April 07, 2023
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  2. McClintock SM, et al. Consensus recommendations for the clinical application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of depression. The Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2018; doi:10.4088/JCP.16cs10905.
  3. Trangle M, et al. Depression, adult in primary care. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement.
  4. Accessed Jan. 18, 2023.
  5. AskMayoExpert. Transcranial magnetic stimulation. Mayo Clinic; 2023.
  6. Holtzheimer PE. Unipolar depression in adults: Indications, efficacy, and safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Accessed Jan. 18, 2023.
  7. Holtzheimer PE. Unipolar major depression: Administering transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Accessed Jan. 18, 2023.
  8. ECT, TMS and other brain stimulation therapies. National Alliance on Mental Illness.,-TMS-and-Other-Brain-Stimulation-Therapies. Accessed Jan. 18, 2023.
  9. Garnaat SL, et al. Updates on transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depressive disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2018; doi:10.1016/j.psc.2018.04.006.
  10. Sebastian R, et al. Clinical implementation of noninvasive brain stimulation in an outpatient neurorehabilitation program. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2023; doi:10.1097/PHM.0000000000002135.
  11. Kung S (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic. Jan. 30, 2023.
  12. Mahoney III JJ, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and other forms of neuromodulation for substance use disorders: Review of modalities and implications for treatment. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2020; doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2020.117149.
  13. News release. Aug. 17, 2018. U.S. Food and Drug Administration; 2018. Accessed Jan. 19, 2023.
  14. Cohen SL, et al. A visual and narrative timeline of U.S. FDA milestones for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) devices. Brain Stimulation. 2022; doi:10.1016/j.brs.2021.11.010.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation