Overview

Convalescent plasma (kon-vuh-LES-unt PLAZ-muh) therapy uses blood from people who've recovered from an illness to help others recover.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized convalescent plasma therapy for people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The FDA is allowing its use during the pandemic because there's no approved treatment for COVID-19.

Blood donated by people who've recovered from COVID-19 has antibodies to the virus that causes it. The donated blood is processed to remove blood cells, leaving behind liquid (plasma) and antibodies. These can be given to people with COVID-19 to boost their ability to fight the virus.

Why it's done

Convalescent plasma therapy may be given to people who are hospitalized with COVID-19.

Convalescent plasma therapy may help people recover from COVID-19. It may lessen the severity or shorten the length of the disease.

Plasma donations needed for COVID-19

If you've recovered from COVID-19, consider donating plasma to help others fight the disease.

Risks

Blood has been used to treat many other conditions. It's usually very safe. The risk of getting COVID-19 from convalescent plasma hasn't been tested yet. But researchers believe that the risk is low because donors have fully recovered from the infection.

Convalescent plasma therapy has some risks, such as:

  • Allergic reactions
  • Lung damage and difficulty breathing
  • Infections such as HIV and hepatitis B and C

The risk of such infections is low. Donated blood must be tested for safety. Some people may have mild complications or none at all. Other people may have severe or life-threatening complications.

What you can expect

Your doctor may consider convalescent plasma therapy if you're in the hospital with COVID-19. If you have questions about convalescent plasma therapy, ask your doctor.

Your doctor will order convalescent plasma that is compatible with your blood type from your hospital's local blood supplier.

Before the procedure

Before convalescent plasma therapy, your health care team prepares you for the procedure. A health care team member inserts a sterile single-use needle connected to a tube (intravenous, or IV, line) into a vein in one of your arms.

During the procedure

When the plasma arrives, the sterile plasma bag is attached to the tube and the plasma drips out of the bag and into the tube. It takes about one to two hours to complete the procedure.

After the procedure

You'll be closely monitored after you receive the convalescent plasma. Your doctor will record your response to the treatment. He or she also may record how long you need to stay in the hospital and if you need other therapies.

Results

It's not yet known if convalescent plasma therapy will be an effective treatment for COVID-19. You might not experience any benefit. However, this therapy might help you recover from the disease.

Data from small clinical trials and a national access program suggest that convalescent plasma may lessen the severity or shorten the duration of COVID-19. However, more research is needed to determine if convalescent plasma therapy will be an effective treatment for COVID-19.

Convalescent plasma therapy care at Mayo Clinic

Aug. 29, 2020
  1. Convalescent plasma COVID-19: Letter of authorization. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/media/141480/download. Accessed Aug. 24, 2020.
  2. Joyner MJ, et al. Effect of convalescent plasma on mortality among hospitalized patients with COVID-19: Initial three month experience. Preprint. medRxiv. 2020; doi:10.1101/2020.08.12.20169359.
  3. FDA issues emergency use authorization for convalescent plasma as potential promising COVID–19 treatment. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-issues-emergency-use-authorization-convalescent-plasma-potential-promising-covid-19-treatment. Accessed Aug. 24, 2020.
  4. Host modifiers and immune-based therapy under evaluation for treatment of COVID-19. National Institutes of Health. https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/immune-based-therapy/. Accessed May 8, 2020.
  5. Donate COVID-19 plasma. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/donate-covid-19-plasma. Accessed Aug. 24, 2020.
  6. Plasma donations from recovered COVID-19 patients. American Red Cross. https://www.redcrossblood.org/donate-blood/dlp/plasma-donations-from-recovered-covid-19-patients.html. Accessed May 8, 2020.
  7. Rajendran K, et al. Convalescent plasma transfusion for the treatment of COVID-19: Systematic review. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020; doi:10.1002/jmv.25961.
  8. Investigational COVID-19 convalescent plasma — Emergency INDs: Frequently asked questions. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/media/136470/download. Accessed May 8, 2020.
  9. Expanded access to convalescent plasma for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. https://www.uscovidplasma.org/. Accessed Aug. 24, 2020.
  10. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html. Accessed May 8, 2020.
  11. Kim AR. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Management in hospitalized adults. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed May 8, 2020.
  12. AskMayoExpert. COVID-19: Adult. Mayo Clinic; 2020.
  13. Joyner MJ (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic. May 8, 2020.
  14. Emergency use authorization. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/mcm-legal-regulatory-and-policy-framework/emergency-use-authorization#coviddrugs. Accessed Aug. 24, 2020.

Related

News from Mayo Clinic