Diagnosis

Your doctor will take a medical history to document recurrent infections and do a physical exam. He or she will order blood tests and possibly recommend genetic testing to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment

There's no cure for XLA. The goal of treatment is to boost the immune system, preventing infections and aggressively treating infections that occur.

Medications

Medications to treat XLA include:

  • Gammaglobulin. This is a type of protein found in blood that contains antibodies against infections. It's given by infusion into a vein every two to four weeks or by weekly injection.

    Reactions to gammaglobulin can include headache, chills, backache and nausea. Reactions are more likely to occur during a viral infection.

  • Antibiotics. Some people with XLA receive continuous antibiotics to prevent infections. Others take antibiotics for bacterial infections longer than people without XLA do.

Your doctor will likely recommend that you have follow-up visits every six to 12 months to screen for complications of XLA. You'll also likely be advised to not get live vaccines, such as live polio, measles-mumps-rubella or chickenpox vaccines.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

X-linked agammaglobulinemia care at Mayo Clinic

Jan. 03, 2020
  1. X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/1033/x-linked-agammaglobulinemia. Accessed Nov. 24, 2019.
  2. Hernandez-Trujillo VP. Agammaglobulinemia. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Nov. 24, 2019.
  3. X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/immunology-allergic-disorders/immunodeficiency-disorders/x-linked-agammaglobulinemia. Accessed Nov. 24, 2019.
  4. AskMayoExpert. Common variable immunodeficiency. Mayo Clinic; 2018.
  5. X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Genetics Home Reference. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/x-linked-agammaglobulinemia#:~:targetText=X%2Dlinked%20agammaglobulinemia%20(XLA),protect%20the%20body%20against%20infection. Accessed Nov. 24, 2019.
  6. Agammaglobulinemia: X-linked and autosomal recessive. Immune Deficiency Foundation. https://primaryimmune.org/about-primary-immunodeficiencies/specific-disease-types/agammaglobulinemia-x-linked-autosomal-recessive/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIuPyMwJ2D5gIVyEXVCh2P3AYZEAAYASAAEgJY_fD_BwE. Accessed Nov. 24, 2019.
  7. Brown AY. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic. Nov.14, 2019.

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