Diagnosis

Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) often cause a heart murmur that your doctor can hear using a stethoscope. If your doctor hears a heart murmur or finds other signs or symptoms of a heart defect, he or she may order several tests including:

  • Echocardiogram. In this test, sound waves produce a video image of the heart. Doctors may use this test to diagnose a ventricular septal defect and determine its size, location and severity. It may also be used to see if there are any other heart problems. Echocardiography can be used on a fetus (fetal echocardiography).
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG). This test records the electrical activity of the heart through electrodes attached to the skin and helps diagnose heart defects or rhythm problems.
  • Chest X-ray. An X-ray image helps the doctor view the heart and lungs to see if the heart is enlarged and if the lungs have extra fluid.
  • Cardiac catheterization. In this test, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel at the groin or arm and guided through the blood vessels into the heart. Through cardiac catheterization, doctors can diagnose congenital heart defects and determine the function of the heart valves and chambers
  • Pulse oximetry. A small clip on the fingertip measures the amount of oxygen in the blood.

Treatment

Many babies born with a small ventricular septal defect (VSD) won't need surgery to close the hole. After birth, your doctor may want to observe your baby and treat symptoms while waiting to see if the defect closes on its own.

Babies who need surgical repair often have the procedure in their first year. Children and adults who have a medium or large ventricular septal defect or one that's causing significant symptoms may need surgery to close the defect.

Some smaller ventricular septal defects are closed surgically to prevent complications related to their locations, such as damage to heart valves. Many people with small VSDs have productive lives with few related problems.

Babies who have large VSDs or who tire easily during feeding may need extra nutrition to help them grow. Some babies may require medication to help treat heart failure.

Medications

Medications for ventricular septal defect depend on the severity of heart failure symptoms. The goal of medication is to decrease the amount of fluid in circulation and in the lungs. Medications called diuretics, such as furosemide (Lasix), reduce how much blood must be pumped.

Surgeries or other procedures

Surgical treatment for ventricular septal defect involves plugging or patching the abnormal opening between the ventricles. If you or your child is having surgery to repair a ventricular defect, consider having surgery performed by surgeons and cardiologists with training and expertise in conducting these procedures.

Procedures to treat VSD may include:

  • Surgical repair. This procedure of choice in most cases usually involves open-heart surgery under general anesthesia. The surgery requires a heart-lung machine and an incision in the chest. The doctor uses a patch or stitches to close the hole.
  • Catheter procedure. Closing a ventricular septal defect during catheterization doesn't require opening the chest. Rather, the doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) into a blood vessel in the groin and guides it to the heart. The doctor then uses a specially sized mesh device to close the hole.

After repair, your doctor will schedule regular medical follow-up to ensure that the ventricular septal defect remains closed and to look for signs of complications. Depending on the size of the defect and the presence of other problems, your doctor will tell you how frequently you or your child will need to be seen.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition.

Lifestyle and home remedies

After your ventricular septal defect (VSD) is repaired, you or your child will need follow-up care throughout life for doctors to monitor your condition and check for any signs of complications.

Your doctor may suggest that you or your child have regular follow-up appointments with a doctor who specializes in congenital heart disease. In follow-up appointments, your doctor may evaluate you or your child and order imaging tests to monitor your or your child's condition.

Here are a few tips for managing your or your child's condition:

  • Consider pregnancy carefully. Before becoming pregnant, talk to a doctor trained in heart conditions (cardiologist) to determine if you can undergo pregnancy safely. This is especially important if you're taking medications. It's also important to see both an obstetrician and a cardiologist during pregnancy.

    Having a repaired VSD without complications or having a small defect doesn't pose a large additional pregnancy risk. However, having an unrepaired, larger defect; heart failure; pulmonary hypertension; abnormal heart rhythms; or other heart defects poses a high risk to both mother and fetus.

    Doctors strongly advise women with Eisenmenger syndrome not to become pregnant because of the high risk of complications.

  • Prevent endocarditis. You or your child usually won't need to take antibiotics before certain dental procedures to prevent an infection of the heart's inner lining (endocarditis).

    However, your doctor may recommend antibiotics if you've had prior endocarditis, a heart valve replacement, if you have had a recent VSD repair with artificial material, if you still have leaks through the VSD, if the repaired VSD is next to a defect that's been repaired with artificial material, or if you have a large ventricular septal defect that's causing low oxygen levels.

    For most people with a ventricular septal defect, good oral hygiene and regular dental checkups can prevent endocarditis.

  • Follow exercise recommendations. Your doctor can advise you about which activities are safe for you or your child. If some activities pose special dangers, encourage your child to engage in other, safer activities. Keep in mind that many children with VSDs can lead healthy, fully active, productive lives.

    Children with small defects or a repaired hole in the heart will usually have few or no restrictions on activity or exercise. Children whose hearts don't pump as normally will need to follow some limits. A child with irreversible pulmonary hypertension (Eisenmenger syndrome) has the greatest number of restrictions.

Coping and support

Consider joining a support group for families of children born with heart defects. Support groups can help parents, families and caregivers find answers, connect with other families, and share their hopes and concerns with others facing similar challenges.

Preparing for your appointment

If you or your child develops signs and symptoms common to ventricular septal defect, call your doctor. After an initial examination, it's likely that the doctor will refer you or your child to a doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of heart conditions (cardiologist).

Here's some information to help you prepare for your appointment.

What you can do

  • Write down signs and symptoms you or your child has had and for how long.
  • Write down key medical information, including other health problems and the names of any medications you or your child is taking, or procedures you or your child have had (including reports).
  • Find a family member or friend who can come with you to the appointment, if possible. Someone who accompanies you can help remember what the doctor says.
  • Write down the questions to ask your doctor.

Questions to ask the doctor at the initial appointment include:

  • What is likely causing these symptoms?
  • Are there other possible causes?
  • What tests are needed?
  • Should a specialist be consulted?

Questions to ask if you are referred to a cardiologist include:

  • How large is the defect?
  • What is the risk of complications from this condition?
  • What treatment do you recommend?
  • How often should we schedule follow-up exams and tests?
  • What signs and symptoms should I watch for at home?
  • What is the long-term outlook for this condition?
  • Do you recommend dietary or activity restrictions?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask a number of questions, including:

If you are the person affected:

  • What are the symptoms?
  • When did the symptoms begin?
  • Have the symptoms gotten worse over time?
  • Are you aware of heart problems in your family?
  • Are you being treated, or have you recently been treated for other health conditions?
  • Are you planning to become pregnant?

If your baby or child is affected:

  • Does your child tire easily while eating or playing?
  • Is your child gaining weight?
  • Does your child breathe rapidly or run out of breath when eating or crying?
  • Has your child been diagnosed with other medical conditions?
Feb. 26, 2021
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  3. Fulton DR, et al. Isolated ventricular septal defects in infants and children: Anatomy, clinical features and diagnosis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 20, 2021.
  4. Zipes DP, ed. Congenital heart disease in the adult and pediatric patient. In: Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 11th ed. Elsevier; 2019. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 20, 2021.
  5. Connolly HM, et al. Management and prognosis of ventricular septal defect in adults. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 20, 2021.
  6. AskMayoExpert. Ventricular septal defect. Mayo Clinic; 2020.
  7. Fulton DR, et al. Management of isolated ventricular septal defects in infants and children. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 21, 2021.