Your child's pediatrician can diagnose hypospadias based on a physical exam. He or she will likely refer you to a surgeon who specializes in genital and urinary conditions (pediatric urologist) for further evaluation. Medical centers with specialty teams can help you evaluate options and can provide expert treatment.

When the opening of the urethra is abnormal and the testicles cannot be felt on exam, the genitals may be difficult to identify as clearly male or female (ambiguous genitalia). In this case, further evaluation with a multidisciplinary team is recommended.


Some forms of hypospadias are very minor and do not require surgery. However, treatment usually involves surgery to reposition the urethral opening and, if necessary, straighten the shaft of the penis. Surgery is usually done between the ages of 6 and 12 months.

If the penis looks abnormal, circumcision should not be done. If hypospadias is found during circumcision, the procedure should be completed. In either case, referral to a pediatric urologist is recommended.


Most forms of hypospadias can be corrected in a single surgery that's done on an outpatient basis. Some forms of hypospadias will require more than one surgery to correct the defect.

When the urethral opening is near the base of the penis, the surgeon may need to use tissue grafts from the foreskin or from the inside of the mouth to reconstruct the urinary channel in the proper position, correcting the hypospadias.

Results of surgery

In most cases, surgery is highly successful. Most of the time the penis looks normal after surgery, and boys have normal urination and reproduction.

Occasionally, a hole (fistula) develops along the underside of the penis where the new urinary channel was created and results in urine leakage. Rarely, there is a problem with wound healing or scarring. These complications may require an additional surgery for repair.

Follow-up care

Your child will need a couple of visits to the surgeon after surgery. After that, regular follow-up with your child's pediatric urologist is recommended after toilet training and at puberty to check for healing and possible complications.

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Preparing for your appointment

In most cases, your child is diagnosed with hypospadias while still in the hospital after birth. You'll likely be referred to a pediatric urologist. Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment.

What you can do

Before the appointment:

  • Ask a family member or friend to go with you a trusted companion can help you remember information and provide support.
  • Make a list of questions to ask your doctor.

Questions to ask might include:

  • Does my child need to have surgery?
  • When is the best time for surgery?
  • What are the risks associated with this surgery?
  • What happens if my child doesn't have the surgery?
  • Will this condition affect my child's fertility or sexual function later in life?
  • What is the likelihood of future children having the same condition?
  • Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can have?
  • What websites do you recommend?

Don't hesitate to ask other questions during the appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Be ready to answer questions from your baby's doctor, such as:

  • Has anyone else in your family been diagnosed with hypospadias?
  • Does your child's penis curve downward during an erection?
  • Have you noticed any abnormal spraying when your child urinates?

Hypospadias care at Mayo Clinic

March 29, 2018
  1. Baskin LS. Hypospadias. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Aug. 14, 2016.
  2. Kliegman RM, et al. Anomalies of the penis and urethra. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2016. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Aug. 14, 2016.
  3. Epispadias and hypospadias. American Urological Association. https://www.auanet.org/education/modules/pathology/penis-defects/epispadias-hypospadias.cfm. Accessed Aug. 14, 2016.
  4. Facts about hypospadias. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/hypospadias.html. Accessed Aug. 14, 2016.
  5. Bouty A, et al. The genetic and environmental factors underlying hypospadias. Sexual Development. 2015;9:239.
  6. Riggin EA. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 26, 2016.
  7. Granberg CF (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 28, 2016.