The doctor will perform a physical exam and ask questions about your child's medical history, family history of high blood pressure, and nutrition and activity level.
Your child's blood pressure will be measured. The correct blood pressure cuff size is important for measuring accurately. It is also important that blood pressure be measured with proper technique, in a quiet environment, with the child resting comfortably. During a single visit, your child's blood pressure might be measured two or more times for accuracy.
For a diagnosis of high blood pressure, your child's blood pressure must be higher than normal when measured during at least three visits to the doctor.
If your child is diagnosed with high blood pressure, it's important to determine whether it's primary or secondary. These tests might be used to look for another condition that could be causing your child's high blood pressure:
- Blood tests to check your child's kidney function, electrolytes, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels (lipids)
- Urine sample test (urinalysis)
- Echocardiogram to create pictures of the heart and blood flow through the heart
- Ultrasound of your child's kidneys (renal ultrasound)
To confirm a diagnosis of high blood pressure, your child's doctor might recommend ambulatory monitoring. This involves your child temporarily wearing a device that measures blood pressure throughout the day, including during sleep and various activities.
Ambulatory monitoring can help rule out blood pressure that's temporarily raised because your child is nervous at the doctor's office (white-coat hypertension).
If your child is diagnosed with slightly or moderately high blood pressure (stage 1 hypertension), your child's doctor will likely suggest trying lifestyle changes, such as a heart-healthy diet and more exercise, before prescribing medications.
If lifestyle changes don't help, your child's doctor might recommend blood pressure medication.
If your child is diagnosed with severely high blood pressure (stage 2 hypertension), your child's doctor will likely recommend blood pressure medications.
Medications might include:
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. These medications help relax your child's blood vessels by blocking the formation of a natural chemical that narrows blood vessels. This makes it easier for your child's blood to flow, reducing blood pressure.
- Angiotensin II receptor blockers. These medications help relax blood vessels by blocking a natural chemical that narrows your child's blood vessels.
- Calcium channel blockers. These medications help relax the muscles of your child's blood vessels and may slow his or her heart rate.
- Diuretics. Also known as water pills, these act on your child's kidneys to help your child remove sodium and water, reducing blood pressure.
Your child's doctor will tell you how long your child will need to stay on the medication. If your child's high blood pressure is caused by obesity, losing weight might make medication unnecessary. Treating other medical conditions your child has might also control his or her blood pressure.
Although little is known about the long-term effects of blood pressure medication on a child's growth and development, many of these medications are generally considered safe to take during childhood.
Lifestyle and home remedies
High blood pressure is treated similarly in children and adults, usually starting with lifestyle changes. Even if your child takes medication for high blood pressure, lifestyle changes can make the medication work better.
- Control your child's weight. If your child is overweight, achieving a healthy weight or maintaining the same weight while getting taller can lower blood pressure.
- Give your child a healthy diet. Encourage your child to eat a heart-healthy diet, emphasizing fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products and lean sources of protein, such as fish and beans, and limiting fat and sugar.
Decrease salt in your child's diet. Cutting the amount of salt (sodium) in your child's diet will help lower his or her blood pressure. Children ages 2 to 3 shouldn't have more than 1,200 milligrams (mg) of sodium a day, and older children shouldn't have more than 1,500 mg a day.
Limit processed foods, which are often high in sodium, and limit eating at fast-food restaurants, whose menu items are full of salt, fat and calories.
- Encourage physical activity. All children should get 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity a day.
- Limit screen time. To encourage your child to be more active, limit time in front of the television, computer or other devices.
- Get the family involved. It can be hard for your child to make healthy lifestyle changes if other family members don't eat well or exercise. Set a good example. Your whole family will benefit from eating better. Create family fun by playing together — ride bikes, play catch or take a walk.
Preparing for your appointment
Your child's blood pressure will be checked as part of a routine complete physical exam or during any pediatric doctor appointment when indicated. Before a blood pressure check, make sure your child hasn't had caffeine or another simulant.
What you can do
Make a list of:
- Symptoms your child has, and when they began. High blood pressure rarely causes symptoms, but it is a risk factor for heart disease and other childhood illnesses.
- Key personal information, including a family history of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, stroke or diabetes.
- All medications, vitamins or supplements your child takes, including doses.
- Your child's diet and exercise habits, including salt intake.
- Questions to ask your doctor.
For high blood pressure, questions to ask your doctor include:
- What tests will my child need?
- Will my child need medications?
- What foods should he or she eat or avoid?
- What's an appropriate level of physical activity?
- How often do I need to schedule appointments to check my child's blood pressure?
- Should I monitor my child's blood pressure at home?
- Should my child see a specialist?
- Can you give me brochures or other printed material? What websites do you recommend?
Don't hesitate to ask other questions.
What to expect from your doctor
Your child's doctor is likely to ask you questions, such as:
- When was your child's blood pressure last checked? What was the blood pressure measurement then?
- Was your child premature or underweight at birth?
- Does your child or anyone in your family smoke?