Identifying abuse or neglect can be difficult. It requires careful evaluation of the situation, including checking for physical and behavioral signs.

Factors that may be considered in determining child abuse include:

  • Physical exam, including evaluating injuries or signs and symptoms of suspected abuse or neglect
  • Lab tests, X-rays or other tests
  • Information about the child's medical and developmental history
  • Description or observation of the child's behavior
  • Observing interactions between parents or caregivers and the child
  • Discussions with parents or caregivers
  • Talking, when possible, with the child

If child abuse or neglect is suspected, a report needs to be made to an appropriate local child welfare agency to further investigate the case. Early identification of child abuse can keep children safe by stopping abuse and preventing future abuse from occurring.


Treatment can help both children and parents in abuse situations. The first priority is ensuring the safety and protection for children who have been abused. Ongoing treatment focuses on preventing future abuse and reducing the long-term psychological and physical consequences of abuse.

Medical care

If necessary, help the child seek appropriate medical care. Seek immediate medical attention if a child has signs of an injury or a change in consciousness. Follow-up care with a health care provider may be required.


Talking with a mental health professional can:

  • Help a child who has been abused learn to trust again
  • Teach a child about healthy behavior and relationships
  • Teach a child conflict management and boost self-esteem

Several different types of therapy may be effective, such as:

  • Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) helps a child who has been abused to better manage distressing feelings and to deal with trauma-related memories. Eventually, the supportive parent who has not abused the child and the child are seen together so the child can tell the parent exactly what happened.
  • Child-parent psychotherapy. This treatment focuses on improving the parent-child relationship and on building a stronger attachment between the two.

Psychotherapy also can help parents:

  • Discover the roots of abuse
  • Learn effective ways to cope with life's unavoidable frustrations
  • Learn healthy parenting strategies

If the child is still in the home, social services may schedule home visits and make sure essential needs, such as food, are available. Children who are placed into foster care may need mental health services.

Where to turn for help

If you need help because you're at risk of abusing a child or you think someone else has abused or neglected a child, take action immediately.

You can start by contacting your health care provider, a local child welfare agency, the police department or a child abuse hotline for advice. In the United States, you can get information and assistance by calling or texting the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline: 1-800-4-A-CHILD (1-800-422-4453).

Coping and support

If a child tells you he or she is being abused, take the situation seriously. The child's safety is most important. Here's what you can do:

  • Encourage the child to tell you what happened. Remain calm as you assure the child that it's OK to talk about the experience, even if someone has threatened him or her to keep silent. Focus on listening, not investigating. Consider that children may use alternate terms for body parts. Don't ask leading questions — allow the child to explain what happened and leave detailed questioning to the professionals.
  • Remind the child that he or she isn't responsible for the abuse. The responsibility for child abuse belongs to the abuser. Say "It's not your fault" over and over again.
  • Offer comfort. You might say, "Thank you for letting me know," "I'm glad that you told me," and "I'll do everything I can to help you." Let the child know you're available to talk or simply listen at any time.
  • Report the abuse. Contact a local child welfare agency or the police department. Authorities will investigate the report and, if necessary, take steps to ensure the child's safety.
  • Help the child remain safe. Ensure the child's safety by separating the abuser and the child, and by providing supervision if the child is in the presence of the abuser. Help the child get medical attention if needed.
  • Consider additional support. You might help the child seek counseling or other mental health treatment. Age-appropriate support groups also can be helpful.
  • If the abuse has occurred at school, make sure the principal of the school is aware of the situation and report it to the local or state child welfare agency.

May 19, 2022

  1. AskMayoExpert. Child abuse. Mayo Clinic; 2021.
  2. Overview of child maltreatment (child abuse). Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/child-maltreatment/overview-of-child-maltreatment#. Accessed Jan. 12, 2022.
  3. Trauma and child abuse resource center: Frequently asked questions. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. https://www.aacap.org/aacap/Families_and_Youth/Resource_Centers/Child_Abuse_Resource_Center/FAQ.aspx#question1. Accessed Jan. 12, 2022.
  4. Preventing child abuse and neglect. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/fastfact.html. Accessed Jan. 12, 2022.
  5. Preventing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs): Leveraging the best available evidence. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/82316. Accessed Jan. 12, 2022.
  6. Child maltreatment surveillance: Uniform definitions for public health and recommended data elements. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/11493. Accessed Jan. 12, 2022.
  7. Violence prevention: Risk and protective factors. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/childabuseandneglect/riskprotectivefactors.html. Accessed Jan. 12, 2022.
  8. Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect. Child Welfare Information Gateway. https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/long-term-consequences/. Accessed Jan. 12, 2022.
  9. How to report child abuse and neglect. Child Welfare Information Gateway. https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/responding/reporting/how/. Accessed Jan. 12, 2022.
  10. Keeping children safe online. U.S. Department of Justice. https://www.justice.gov/coronavirus/keeping-children-safe-online. Accessed Jan. 13, 2022.
  11. Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention: Abuse and neglect. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. American Psychiatric Association; 2013. https://dsm.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed Jan. 13, 2022.
  12. Boos SC. Physical child abuse: Recognition. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 12, 2022.
  13. Child neglect: Evaluation and management. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 12, 2022.
  14. Health Education & Content Services (Patient Education). Talking to your child about safe and unsafe touch. Mayo Clinic; 2021.
  15. Handling child abuse disclosures. Childhelp. https://www.childhelp.org/what-is-child-abuse/handling-child-abuse-disclosures/. Accessed Jan. 14, 2022.
  16. Zeanah CH, et al. Child abuse and neglect. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2018; doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2018.06.007.
  17. Cohen JA, et al. Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children and families. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2022; doi:10.1016/j.chc.2021.05.001.
  18. Child-parent psychotherapy. Youth.gov. https://youth.gov/content/child%25E2%2580%2593parent-psychotherapy. Accessed Jan. 14, 2022.
  19. Sege RD, et al. Effective discipline to raise healthy children. Pediatrics. 2018; doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3112.
  20. Derauf DC (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic. Jan. 28, 2022.


One gift, 3X the impact

Join our Year-End Challenge and triple your gift to help shape the future of healthcare!