概述

软组织肉瘤是一种罕见的癌症,起源于连接、支撑和围绕其他身体结构的组织。包括肌肉、脂肪、血管、神经、肌腱和关节内膜。

存在 50 多种软组织肉瘤。有几种可能会影响儿童,另一些则主要影响成人。这些肿瘤可能与其他多种增生物混淆,因此很难诊断。

软组织肉瘤会发生在身体任何部位,但最常见几种是出现在手臂、腿部和腹部。手术切除是最常见的治疗方法,不过也可能推荐采用放疗和化疗,具体取决于肿瘤的大小、类型、位置和侵袭性。

Types

症状

软组织肉瘤在其早期阶段可能不会引起任何体征和症状。随着肿瘤的生长,它可能导致:

  • 明显肿块或肿胀
  • 疼痛(如果肿瘤压迫神经或肌肉)

何时就诊

如果出现以下情况,请与医生约诊:

  • 肿块增大或疼痛
  • 位于肌肉深处的任何大小的肿块
  • 已被切除的肿块复发

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病因

大多数情况下,软组织肉瘤的病因并不清楚。

一般而言,当细胞的 DNA 发生错误(突变)时,就会发生癌症。这些错误会使细胞生长和分裂失控。异常细胞会聚集形成肿瘤,肿瘤会生长侵入附近结构,且异常细胞会扩散到身体的其他部位。

产生基因突变的细胞类型决定了软组织肉瘤的类型。例如,血管肉瘤起源于血管内膜,而脂肪肉瘤起源于脂肪细胞。某些类型的软组织肉瘤包括:

  • 血管肉瘤
  • 隆突性皮肤纤维肉瘤
  • 上皮样肉瘤
  • 胃肠道间质瘤(GIST)
  • 卡波西肉瘤
  • 平滑肌肉瘤
  • 脂肪肉瘤
  • 恶性周围神经鞘瘤
  • 黏液纤维肉瘤
  • 横纹肌肉瘤
  • 孤立性纤维瘤
  • 滑膜肉瘤
  • 未分化(多形性肉瘤)

风险因素

增大患肉瘤风险的因素包括:

  • 遗传综合征。软组织肉瘤的风险可以从父母继承。会增加风险的遗传综合征包括遗传性视网膜母细胞瘤、李法美尼综合征、家族性腺瘤性息肉病、神经纤维瘤病、结节性硬化症和 沃纳综合征。
  • 化学物质接触。接触某些化学物质(例如除草剂、砷和二恶英)可能会增加患软组织肉瘤的风险。
  • 辐射暴露。先前针对其他癌症的放射治疗也会增加患软组织肉瘤的风险。

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

Dec. 02, 2020
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