Diagnóstico

Para diagnosticar el cáncer del piso de la boca, un médico puede comenzar examinando la boca. Es posible que se extraiga una muestra de células sospechosas y que se envíe a un laboratorio para analizarla. Las pruebas de diagnóstico por imágenes, como la tomografía computarizada, la resonancia magnética y la tomografía por emisión de positrones, pueden detectar si el cáncer se diseminó a otras partes del cuerpo.

Tratamiento

El tratamiento para el cáncer de boca suele ser cirugía para extraer las células cancerosas. En ocasiones, se necesita cirugía reconstructiva para restaurar el funcionamiento de la boca después de una cirugía para extirpar el cáncer. Otros tratamientos incluyen la radioterapia con rayos de alta energía y la quimioterapia con medicamentos fuertes. Los especialistas pueden ayudarte si tienes dificultades para hablar, tragar y comer después del tratamiento.

Estudios clínicos

Explora los estudios de Mayo Clinic de evaluación de tratamientos, intervenciones y análisis nuevos como medio para prevenir, detectar, tratar o controlar esta enfermedad.

Estrategias de afrontamiento y apoyo

A cancer diagnosis can be overwhelming and frightening. You can help yourself feel more in control by taking an active role in your health care. To help you cope, try to:

  • Learn enough about cancer to make decisions about your care. Ask your doctor about your cancer, including the extent of your cancer, your treatment options and, if you like, your prognosis. As you learn more about cancer, you may become more confident in making treatment decisions.
  • Keep friends and family close. Keeping your close relationships strong will help you deal with your cancer. Friends and family can provide the practical support you'll need, such as helping take care of your home if you're in the hospital. And they can serve as emotional support when you feel overwhelmed by cancer.
  • Find someone to talk with. Find a good listener with whom you can talk about your hopes and fears. This may be a friend or family member. The concern and understanding of a counselor, medical social worker, clergy member or cancer support group also may be helpful.

    Ask your doctor about support groups in your area or contact cancer organizations, such as the National Cancer Institute or the American Cancer Society.

Preparación para la consulta

Make an appointment with your doctor or dentist if you have any signs or symptoms that worry you.

If your doctor or dentist feels you may have mouth cancer, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in diseases of the face, mouth, teeth, jaws, salivary glands and neck (oral and maxillofacial surgeon) or to a doctor who specializes in diseases that affect the ears, nose and throat (ENT specialist or otorhinolaryngologist).

Because appointments can be brief, and because there's often a lot of ground to cover, it's a good idea to be well prepared. Here's some information to help you get ready.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as restrict your diet.
  • Write down symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
  • Write down key personal information, including major stresses or recent life changes.
  • Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements you're taking.
  • Take a family member or friend along. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all the information provided during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Your time with your doctor is limited, so preparing a list of questions can help you make the most of your time together. List your questions from most important to least important in case time runs out. For floor of the mouth cancer, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What is the stage of my cancer?
  • What other tests do I need?
  • What are my treatment options?
  • Is there one treatment that's best for my type and stage of cancer?
  • What are the potential side effects for each treatment?
  • Should I seek a second opinion? Can you give me the names of specialists you recommend?
  • Am I eligible for clinical trials?
  • Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? What websites do you recommend?
  • What will determine whether I should plan for a follow-up visit?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions. Being ready to answer them may allow time later to cover points you want to address. Your doctor may ask:

  • When did you begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?

Cáncer en la base de la boca - atención en Mayo Clinic

Feb. 05, 2019
  1. AskMayoExpert. Head and neck cancers (Cáncer de cabeza y cuello). Rochester, Minn.: Fundación Mayo para la Educación e Investigación Médica; 2015.
  2. Flint PW, et al. Malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity (Neoplasmas malignos de la cavidad oral). En: Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery (Otorrinolaringología de Cummings: cirugía de cabeza y cuello). 6.ª ed. Filadelfia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2015. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Último acceso: 1 de julio de 2016.
  3. Head and neck cancers (Cáncer de cabeza y cuello). Fort Washington, Pa.: National Comprehensive Cancer Network (Red Nacional Integral del Cáncer). http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/f_guidelines.asp. Último acceso: 1 de julio de 2016.
  4. Cook AJ. EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. 30 de marzo de 2016.