Overview

Related links

Somatic symptom disorder

Illness anxiety disorder, sometimes called hypochondria or health anxiety, is worrying excessively that you are or may become seriously ill. You may have no physical symptoms. Or you may believe that normal body sensations or minor symptoms are signs of severe illness, even though a thorough medical exam doesn't reveal a serious medical condition.

If you have a medical condition or you're at high risk of developing one, you become consumed with worry. You may experience excessive anxiety that a body sensation associated with a known illness signals a much greater threat than actually exists. This excessive anxiety — rather than the physical symptom itself — results in severe distress that can be disabling.

Illness anxiety disorder is a long-term condition that can fluctuate in severity. It may increase with age or during times of stress. But psychological counseling (psychotherapy) and sometimes medication can help ease your worries.

Hypochondria

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, published by the American Psychiatric Association, no longer includes hypochondriasis — also called hypochondria — as a diagnosis. Instead, people previously diagnosed with hypochondriasis may be classified as having one of these disorders:

  • Illness anxiety disorder, especially if there are no physical symptoms or they're mild
  • Somatic symptom disorder, especially if there are multiple or major physical symptoms

Symptoms

Symptoms of illness anxiety disorder involve preoccupation with the idea that you're seriously ill, based on normal body sensations (such as a noisy stomach) or minor symptoms (such as a minor rash). Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Being preoccupied with having or getting a serious disease or health condition
  • Worrying that minor symptoms or body sensations mean you have a serious illness
  • Being easily alarmed about your health status
  • Finding little or no reassurance from negative test results or a doctor's reassurance that you're healthy
  • Worrying excessively about a specific medical condition or your risk of developing a medical condition because it runs in your family
  • Having so much distress about possible illnesses that it's hard for you to function
  • Repeatedly checking your body for signs of illness
  • Frequently making medical appointments for reassurance — or, avoiding medical care for fear of being diagnosed with a serious illness
  • Avoiding people, places or activities for fear of health risks
  • Constantly talking about your health and possible illnesses
  • Frequently searching the Internet for causes of symptoms or possible illnesses

When to see a doctor

Because symptoms can be related to health problems, it's important to be evaluated by your health care provider if this hasn't already been done. If your provider believes that you may have illness anxiety disorder, he or she may refer you to a mental health provider.

Caring for a loved one

Significant health anxiety can cause real distress for the person, and reassurance isn't always helpful. Sometimes, providing reassurance can make things worse. This can be frustrating and cause stress on families and relationships. Encourage your loved one to consider a mental health referral to learn ways to cope with illness anxiety disorder.

Causes

The exact cause of illness anxiety disorder isn't clear, but these factors may play a role:

  • Beliefs. You don't understand the meaning of body sensations or you have a poor understanding of diseases, or both. This could lead you to think that all body sensations are serious, so you search for evidence to confirm that you have a serious disease.
  • Family. You may be more likely to have health anxiety if you had parents who worried too much about their own health or your health.
  • Past experience. You may have had experience with serious illness in childhood, so physical sensations are frightening to you.

Illness anxiety disorder usually begins in early or middle adulthood and may get worse with age. Often for older individuals, health-related anxiety may focus on the fear of losing their memory.

Risk factors

Risk factors for illness anxiety disorder may include:

  • A time of major life stress
  • Threat of a serious illness that turns out not to be serious
  • History of abuse as a child
  • A serious childhood illness or a parent with a serious illness
  • A personality that includes being a worrier
  • Excessive health-related Internet use

Complications

Illness anxiety disorder may be associated with:

  • Relationship or family problems because excessive worrying can frustrate others
  • Work-related performance problems or excessive absences
  • Problems functioning in daily life, possibly even resulting in disability
  • Financial problems due to too many health care visits
  • Having another mental health disorder, such as somatic symptom disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression or a personality disorder

Prevention

Little is known about how to prevent illness anxiety disorder, but these suggestions may help.

  • If you have problems with anxiety, seek professional advice as soon as possible to help stop symptoms from getting worse and impairing your quality of life.
  • Learn to recognize when you're stressed and how this affects your body — and regularly practice stress management and relaxation techniques.
  • Stick with your treatment plan to help prevent relapses or worsening of symptoms.
July 02, 2015
References
  1. Illness anxiety disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://www.psychiatryonline.org. Accessed May 14, 2015.
  2. Levenson JL. Hypochondriasis: Epidemiology, clinical presentation, assessment, and diagnosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 14, 2015.
  3. Levenson JL. Hypochondriasis: Treatment and prognosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed May 14, 2015.
  4. Illness anxiety disorder. Merck Manual Professional Version. http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/psychiatric-disorders/somatic-symptom-and-related-disorders/illness-anxiety-disorder. Accessed May 16, 2015.
  5. Singh K, et al. From headache to tumour: An examination of health anxiety, health-related Internet use and 'query escalation.' Journal of Health Psychology. In press. Accessed May 16, 2015.
  6. Isaac ML, et al. Medically unexplained symptoms. Medical Clinics of North America. 2014;98:663.
  7. Starcevic V. Hypochondriasis and health anxiety: Conceptual challenges. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2013;202:7.
  8. Health anxiety (hypochondria). NHS Choices. http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hypochondria/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Accessed May 16, 2015.
  9. Stonnington CM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Ariz. June 13, 2015.
  10. Craner JR (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 12, 2015.
  11. Sawchuk CN (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 12, 2015.

Illness anxiety disorder