Black hairy tongue
Black hairy tongue is caused by an overgrowth of dead skin cells, causing lengthening of the papillae, and staining from bacteria, yeast, food, tobacco or other substances in the mouth.
Black hairy tongue is a temporary, harmless oral condition that gives the tongue a dark, furry appearance. The distinct look usually results from a buildup of dead skin cells on the many tiny projections (papillae) on the surface of the tongue that contain taste buds. These papillae, which are longer than normal, can easily trap and be stained by bacteria, yeast, tobacco, food or other substances.
Although black hairy tongue may look alarming, typically it doesn't cause any health problems, and it's usually painless. Black hairy tongue usually resolves by eliminating possible causes or contributing factors and practicing good oral hygiene.
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Signs and symptoms of black hairy tongue include:
- Black discoloration of the tongue, although the color may be brown, tan, green, yellow or white
- A hairy or furry appearance of the tongue
- Altered taste or metallic taste in your mouth
- Bad breath (halitosis)
- Gagging or tickling sensation, if the overgrowth of the papillae is excessive
When to see a doctor
Though unattractive, black hairy tongue is usually a temporary, harmless condition.
See your doctor if:
- You're concerned about the appearance of your tongue
- Black hairy tongue persists despite brushing your teeth and tongue twice daily
Black hairy tongue typically results when projections on the tongue called papillae grow longer because they don't shed dead skin cells like normal. This makes the tongue look hairy. Debris, bacteria or other organisms can collect on the papillae and result in discoloration.
Although the cause of black hairy tongue can't always be determined, possible causes or contributing factors include:
- Changes in the normal bacteria or yeast content of the mouth after antibiotic use
- Poor oral hygiene
- Dry mouth (xerostomia)
- Regular use of mouthwashes containing irritating oxidizing agents, such as peroxide
- Tobacco use
- Drinking excessive amounts of coffee or black tea
- Excessive alcohol use
- Eating a soft diet that doesn't help to rub dead skin cells from your tongue
March 08, 2018
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- Gurvits GE, et al. Black hairy tongue syndrome. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2014;20:10845.
- Tongue, hairy. National Organization for Rare Disorders. https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/tongue-hairy/. Accessed Feb. 25, 2017.
- Goldstein BG, et al. Oral lesions. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 27, 2017.
- Mangold AR, et al. Diseases of the tongue. Clinics in Dermatology. 2016;34:458.
- Brushing your teeth. American Dental Association. http://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/b/brushing-your-teeth. Accessed Feb. 27, 2017.
- Wilkinson JM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. March 16, 2017.
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