概述

霍奇金淋巴瘤是一种影响淋巴系统的癌症,淋巴系统是人体免疫系统抵抗细菌的一道防线。在霍奇金淋巴瘤中,淋巴细胞这种白细胞出现失控生长,导致淋巴结肿大和遍及全身的生长物。

霍奇金淋巴瘤曾被称为霍奇金病,是两类淋巴瘤之一。另一类是非霍奇金淋巴瘤。

霍奇金淋巴瘤诊断和治疗方面的进展已帮助患者提高了完全康复的几率。霍奇金淋巴瘤患者的预后正不断改善。

产品与服务

Types

症状

霍奇金淋巴瘤的体征和症状可能包括:

  • 颈部、腋窝或腹股沟淋巴结无痛肿胀
  • 持续性疲劳
  • 发热
  • 盗汗
  • 体重意外下降
  • 严重瘙痒
  • 饮酒后淋巴结疼痛

何时就诊

如果出现令人担心的某些持续性体征或症状,请与医务人员约诊。

病因

医生们不确定霍奇金淋巴瘤的病因。他们知道,这种疾病始于对抗感染的白细胞(称为淋巴细胞)的 DNA 发生变化时。细胞的 DNA 包含指示细胞该做什么的指令。

上述 DNA 变化指示细胞迅速增殖,并在其他细胞正常死亡时继续存活。淋巴瘤细胞会攻击许多健康的免疫系统细胞,以保护自己并帮助自己生长。多余的细胞会聚集到淋巴结,导致肿胀及其他霍奇金淋巴瘤体征和症状。

霍奇金淋巴瘤有多种类型。您的类型取决于与您的疾病有关的细胞特征及其行为。明确您所患淋巴瘤的类型有助于确定治疗方案。

经典型霍奇金淋巴瘤

经典型霍奇金淋巴瘤是这种疾病的更常见类型。诊断出这种疾病的患者的淋巴结中有巨大的淋巴瘤细胞,叫做里-施细胞。

经典型霍奇金淋巴瘤的亚型包括:

  • 结节硬化型霍奇金淋巴瘤
  • 混合细胞型霍奇金淋巴瘤
  • 淋巴细胞削减型霍奇金淋巴瘤
  • 淋巴细胞丰富型霍奇金淋巴瘤

结节性淋巴细胞为主的霍奇金淋巴瘤

这种非常罕见的霍奇金淋巴瘤含有淋巴瘤细胞,因其外观,有时被称为爆米花细胞。结节性淋巴细胞为主的霍奇金淋巴瘤通常发现于早期,与该病的典型类型相比,需要的强化治疗更少。

风险因素

可能增加霍奇金淋巴瘤发病风险的因素包括:

  • 年龄。20 到 30 岁和 55 岁以上人群更常被诊断出霍奇金淋巴瘤。
  • 淋巴瘤家族史。血亲罹患霍奇金淋巴瘤会导致您罹患霍奇金淋巴瘤的风险增大。
  • 男性。与出生性别为女性的人群相比,出生性别为男性的人群罹患霍奇金淋巴瘤的可能性稍高。
  • 之前感染过 EB 病毒。曾因 EB 病毒而罹患传染性单核细胞增多症等疾病者比没有感染过 EB 病毒者更有可能罹患霍奇金淋巴瘤。
  • HIV 感染。HIV 感染者患霍奇金淋巴瘤的风险会增大。

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

Dec. 28, 2022

Living with 霍奇金淋巴瘤(霍奇金病)?

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