概述

当癌细胞从原来的位置扩散到大脑时,就会引起脑转移瘤。任何癌症都可以扩散到大脑,但最容易引起脑转移瘤的类型是肺癌、乳腺癌、结肠癌、肾癌和黑色素瘤。

脑转移瘤可在脑内形成一个或多个肿瘤。转移性脑肿瘤逐渐生长,对周围脑组织产生压力并改变其功能。这会引起各种体征和症状,如头痛、性格变化、记忆丧失和癫痫发作。

对于癌症扩散到脑部的患者,治疗可能包括手术、放射疗法、化疗、免疫疗法或这些方法的组合。在某些情况下,可能建议接受其他治疗。治疗的重点通常是减轻疼痛和癌症引起的症状。

症状

由脑转移瘤引起的体征和症状可能因转移瘤的位置、大小和生长速度而异。

脑转移瘤的体征和症状包括:

  • 头痛,有时伴有呕吐或恶心
  • 精神变化,例如记忆力问题渐增
  • 癫痫发作
  • 单侧身体无力或麻木

何时就诊

如果出现令您担心的持续体征或症状,请与医生约诊。如果您曾经接受过癌症治疗,请将您的病史告知医生。

病因

当癌细胞从原发位置扩散时,就会引起脑转移瘤。癌细胞可能通过血流或淋巴系统扩散(转移)到脑部,并在此开始增殖。

从原发位置扩散的转移性癌症根据原发性癌症命名。例如,从乳房扩散到脑部的癌症称为转移性乳腺癌,而不是脑癌。

风险因素

任何类型的癌症都可能扩散到大脑,但是某些类型的癌症引起脑转移瘤的风险更高,包括:

  • 肺癌
  • 乳腺癌
  • 结肠癌
  • 肾癌
  • 黑色素瘤

在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

Oct. 25, 2022

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