概述

骨癌可能发生在身体任何一块骨头上,但最常累及骨盆或四肢长骨。骨癌是罕见病,在所有癌症中的占比不及 1%。事实上,非癌性骨肿瘤远远多于癌性骨肿瘤。

“骨癌”一词并不包括原发于身体其他部位并扩散(转移)到骨的癌症。这些癌症以其原发部位命名,比如乳腺癌骨转移。

有些类型的骨癌主要影响儿童,而另一些则以成人为主。手术切除是最常见的治疗方法,但也可以使用化疗和放疗。具体采用手术、化疗还是放疗,则根据治疗的骨癌类型决定。

Types

症状

骨癌的体征和症状包括:

  • 骨骼疼痛
  • 病变部位周围肿胀和压痛
  • 骨骼脆弱易断
  • 疲劳
  • 原因不明的体重减轻

何时就诊

如果您或您的孩子出现以下症状的骨痛,请约诊您的医生:

  • 时有时无
  • 晚间加剧
  • 非处方止痛药不起效

病因

大多数骨癌的原因尚不清楚。少数骨癌与遗传因素有关,而其他骨癌可能是因为曾经有过辐射照射史。

骨癌类型

根据癌症始发位置的细胞类型,骨癌可分为不同的类型。最常见的骨癌类型包括:

  • 骨肉瘤。骨肉瘤是最常见的一种骨癌。这种肿瘤的癌细胞产生骨。这种骨癌最常见于儿童和年轻人的腿骨或臂骨。在罕见情况下,骨肉瘤可发生于骨外(骨外骨肉瘤)。
  • 软骨肉瘤。软骨肉瘤是第二常见的骨癌。这种肿瘤的癌细胞产生软骨。软骨肉瘤常见于中老年人的骨盆、腿部或手臂。
  • 尤因肉瘤。尤因肉瘤最常见于儿童和年轻成人的骨盆、腿部或手臂部位。

风险因素

尚不清楚是什么导致了骨癌,但医生发现某些因素与风险增加有关,包括:

  • 遗传综合征。某些通过家族遗传的罕见遗传综合征会增加骨癌的患病风险,包括 Li-Fraumeni 综合征和遗传性视网膜母细胞瘤。
  • 佩吉特骨病。佩吉特骨病最常见于老年人,会增加日后患骨癌的风险。
  • 癌症的放射疗法。暴露于大剂量辐射,例如癌症放射疗法期间的辐射,会增加将来患骨癌的风险。

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