概述

软骨肉瘤是一种罕见的癌症,通常始于骨骼,但有时也会出现在骨骼附近的软组织中。最常出现软骨肉瘤的部位是骨盆、髋部和肩。更为罕见情况下,颅底会受到影响。

软骨肉瘤的显著特征是其细胞会产生软骨。有些类型的软骨肉瘤生长缓慢,扩散至其他器官和骨骼的风险低,前提是完全切除。有些类型生长迅速且转移风险高。

软骨肉瘤的主要治疗方法是通过手术切除肿瘤。放疗和化疗在软骨肉瘤的治疗中很难奏效

症状

软骨肉瘤的体征和症状可能包括:

  • 疼痛加剧
  • 肿胀或可触及肿块
  • 由于骨质脆弱而骨折

如果肿瘤压迫到脊髓,您可能会感到虚弱、麻木或失禁。

病因

软骨肉瘤与某些基因突变有关。有些软骨肉瘤是由于良性软骨病变转变为癌症所致。

风险因素

虽然各年龄段人群均可能患上软骨肉瘤,但最常见的一类软骨肉瘤通常影响中年至老年人群。

多发内生软骨瘤病和马富西综合征这两种疾病表现为体内的良性软骨病变(内生软骨瘤)数量增加。这些病变有时会恶化为软骨肉瘤。

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在 Mayo Clinic 治疗

Jan. 13, 2022
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