Treatments for wet macular degeneration

Wet macular degeneration treatments can help preserve existing vision and, sometimes, recover lost vision.

Research hasn't provided a cure for wet macular degeneration — a chronic eye disease that affects the part of the retina responsible for your central vision (the macula). But treatment can help slow disease progression, preserve existing vision and, if started early enough, recover some of the vision that may have been lost.

When facing a wet macular degeneration diagnosis, it can help to understand the main treatment options.

Medications to stop growth of abnormal blood vessels

When you have wet macular degeneration, your body sends chemical signals to generate new blood vessels that grow from under and into the macula. These new vessels bleed easily and leak fluid, damaging the macula.

Certain medications called anti-VEGF drugs can block this growth signal and help stop new vessels from forming. These drugs are considered the first line treatment for wet macular degeneration.

Medications used to treat wet macular degeneration include:

  • Bevacizumab (Avastin)
  • Ranibizumab (Lucentis)
  • Aflibercept (Eylea)
  • Faricimab-svoa (Vabysmo)

Your doctor injects these medications into the affected eye. You may need injections every several weeks to maintain the beneficial effect of the medication. In some instances, you may partially recover vision as the blood vessels shrink and the fluid under the retina is absorbed, allowing retinal cells to regain some function.

Some possible risks of eye injections include eye irritation, new floaters, increased eye pressure, inflammation, cataracts, bleeding and infection. Some of these medications may increase the risk of stroke.

Using light to activate an injected medication (photodynamic therapy)

Photodynamic therapy is another treatment option for abnormal blood vessel growth in wet macular degeneration, however it is used less frequently than anti-VEGF injections.

In this procedure, your doctor injects a drug called verteporfin (Visudyne) into a vein in your arm, which travels to blood vessels in your eye. Your doctor shines a focused light from a special laser to the abnormal blood vessels in your eye. This activates the drug, causing the abnormal blood vessels to close, which stops the leakage.

Photodynamic therapy may improve your vision and reduce the rate of vision loss. You may need repeated treatments over time, as the treated blood vessels may reopen.

After photodynamic therapy, you'll need to avoid direct sunlight and bright lights until the drug has cleared your body, which may take several days.

Treatment can help slow the progress of wet macular degeneration, and in some cases restore some vision. In addition to discussing treatment options with your doctor, ask about low vision rehabilitation, which can provide you with strategies and technology to live a full life, even with reduced vision.

Sept. 21, 2023 See more In-depth