Diagnosis

During the physical exam, your doctor is likely to:

  • Inspect your knee for swelling, pain, tenderness, warmth and visible bruising
  • Check to see how far you can move your lower leg in different directions
  • Push on or pull the joint to evaluate the integrity of the structures in your knee

Imaging tests

In some cases, your doctor might suggest tests such as:

  • X-ray. Your doctor may first recommend having an X-ray, which can help detect bone fractures and degenerative joint disease.
  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan. CT scanners combine X-rays taken from many different angles, to create cross-sectional images of the inside of your body. CT scans can help diagnose bone problems and detect loose bodies.
  • Ultrasound. This technology uses sound waves to produce real-time images of the soft tissue structures within and around your knee, and how they are working. Your doctor may want to maneuver your knee into different positions during the ultrasound, to check for specific problems.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging. An MRI uses radio waves and a powerful magnet to create 3-D images of the inside of your knee. This test is particularly useful in revealing injuries to soft tissues such as ligaments, tendons, cartilage and muscles.

Lab tests

If your doctor suspects an infection, gout or pseudogout, you're likely to have blood tests and sometimes arthrocentesis, a procedure in which a small amount of fluid is removed from within your knee joint with a needle and sent to a laboratory for analysis.

Treatment

Treatments will vary, depending upon what exactly is causing your knee pain.

Medications

Your doctor may prescribe medications to help relieve pain and to treat underlying conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout.

Therapy

Strengthening the muscles around your knee will make it more stable. Training is likely to focus on the muscles on the front of your thigh (quadriceps) and the muscles in the back of your thigh (hamstrings). Correcting suboptimal movement patterns is also helpful, along with establishing good technique during your sport or activity. Exercises to improve your balance also are important.

Arch supports, sometimes with wedges on one side of the heel, can help to shift pressure away from the side of the knee most affected by osteoarthritis. In certain conditions, different types of braces may be used to help protect and support the knee joint.

Injections

In some cases, your doctor may suggest injecting medications or other substances directly into your joint. Examples include:

  • Corticosteroids. Injections of a corticosteroid drug into your knee joint may help reduce the symptoms of an arthritis flare and provide pain relief that lasts a few months. These injections aren't effective in all cases.
  • Hyaluronic acid. A thick fluid, similar to the fluid that naturally lubricates joints, hyaluronic acid can be injected into your knee to improve mobility and ease pain. Although study results have been mixed about the effectiveness of this treatment, relief from one or a series of shots may last as long as six months.
  • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP contains a concentration of many different growth factors that appear to reduce inflammation and promote healing. These types of injections tend to work better in younger people and in people with mild arthritis.

Surgery

If you have an injury that may require surgery, it's usually not necessary to have the operation immediately. Before making any decision, consider the pros and cons of both nonsurgical rehabilitation and surgical reconstruction in relation to what's most important to you. If you choose to have surgery, your options may include:

  • Arthroscopic surgery. Depending on your injury, your doctor may be able to examine and repair your joint damage using a fiber-optic camera and long, narrow tools inserted through just a few small incisions around your knee. Arthroscopy may be used to remove loose bodies from your knee joint, remove or repair damaged cartilage (especially if it is causing your knee to lock), and reconstruct torn ligaments.
  • Partial knee replacement surgery. In this procedure (unicompartmental arthroplasty), your surgeon replaces only the most damaged portion of your knee with parts made of metal and plastic. The surgery can usually be performed through small incisions, so you're likely to heal more quickly than you are with surgery to replace your entire knee.
  • Total knee replacement. In this procedure, your surgeon cuts away damaged bone and cartilage from your thighbone, shinbone and kneecap, and replaces it with an artificial joint made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics and polymers.

Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this disease.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Over-the-counter medications — such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen (Aleve, others) — may help ease knee pain. Some people find relief by rubbing their knees with creams containing a numbing agent, such as lidocaine, or capsaicin, the substance that makes chili peppers hot.

Self-care measures for an injured knee include:

  • Rest. Take a break from your normal activities to reduce repetitive strain on your knee, give the injury time to heal and help prevent further damage. A day or two of rest may be all you need for a minor injury. More-severe damage is likely to need a longer recovery time.
  • Ice. Ice reduces both pain and inflammation. A bag of frozen peas works well because it covers your whole knee. You also can use an ice pack wrapped in a thin towel to protect your skin. Although ice therapy is generally safe and effective, don't use ice for longer than 20 minutes at a time because of the risk of damage to your nerves and skin.
  • Compression. This helps prevent fluid buildup in damaged tissues and maintains knee alignment and stability. Look for a compression bandage that's lightweight, breathable and self-adhesive. It should be tight enough to support your knee without interfering with circulation.
  • Elevation. To help reduce swelling, try propping your injured leg on pillows or sitting in a recliner.

Alternative medicine

  • Glucosamine and chondroitin. Study results have been mixed about the effectiveness of these supplements for relieving osteoarthritis pain. People who have moderate to severe arthritis pain appear to get the most benefit from these supplements.
  • Acupuncture. Research suggests that acupuncture may help relieve knee pain caused by osteoarthritis. Acupuncture involves the placement of hair-thin needles into your skin at specific places on your body.

Preparing for your appointment

You're likely to start by seeing your family doctor. Depending upon the cause of your problem, he or she may refer you to a doctor specializing in joint diseases (rheumatologist), joint surgery (orthopedic surgeon) or sports medicine.

What you can do

Before your appointment, you may want to write a list of answers to the following questions:

  • When did you begin experiencing symptoms?
  • Did a specific injury make your knee start to hurt?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • How severe are your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms?
  • What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms?
  • What medications and supplements do you take regularly?

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor may ask some of the following questions:

  • Do you exercise or play sports?
  • Do you experience any swelling, instability or locking of the knee?
  • Are you experiencing symptoms in other areas, or just in your knee?
  • Have you ever had knee pain before? If so, do you know what the cause was?
Aug. 15, 2017
References
  1. Knee problems. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Knee_Problems. Accessed Jan. 22, 2016.
  2. Firestein GS, et al. Hip and knee pain. In: Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Jan. 22, 2016.
  3. Beutler A, et al. Approach to the athlete or active adult with knee pain. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 22, 2016.
  4. Common knee injuries. American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00325. Accessed Jan. 22, 2016.
  5. Kalunian KC. Nonpharmacologic therapy of osteoarthritis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 22, 2016.
  6. Kalunian KC. Initial pharmacologic therapy of osteoarthritis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Jan. 22, 2016.
  7. Laskowski ER (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 1, 2016.
  8. Ayhan E, et al. Intra-articular injections (corticosteroid, hyaluronic acid, platelet rich plasma) for the knee arthritis. World Journal of Orthopedics. 2014;5:351.
  9. Glucosamine and chondroitin for osteoarthritis. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/glucosaminechondroitin. Accessed Jan. 25, 2016.
  10. Acupuncture: In depth. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/acupuncture/introduction. Accessed Jan. 25, 2016.