Hair loss can affect just your scalp or your entire body. It can be the result of heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions or medications. Anyone can experience hair loss, but it's more common in men.
Baldness typically refers to excessive hair loss from your scalp. Hereditary hair loss with age is the most common cause of baldness. Some people prefer to let their hair loss run its course untreated and unhidden. Others may cover it up with hairstyles, makeup, hats or scarves. And still others choose one of the treatments available to prevent further hair loss and to restore growth.
Before pursuing hair loss treatment, talk with your doctor about the cause of your hair loss and treatment options.
Hair loss can appear in many different ways, depending on what's causing it. It can come on suddenly or gradually and affect just your scalp or your whole body. Some types of hair loss are temporary, and others are permanent.
Signs and symptoms of hair loss may include:
- Gradual thinning on top of head. This is the most common type of hair loss, affecting both men and women as they age. In men, hair often begins to recede from the forehead in a line that resembles the letter M. Women typically retain the hairline on the forehead but have a broadening of the part in their hair.
- Circular or patchy bald spots. Some people experience smooth, coin-sized bald spots. This type of hair loss usually affects just the scalp, but it sometimes also occurs in beards or eyebrows. In some cases, your skin may become itchy or painful before the hair falls out.
- Sudden loosening of hair. A physical or emotional shock can cause hair to loosen. Handfuls of hair may come out when combing or washing your hair or even after gentle tugging. This type of hair loss usually causes overall hair thinning and not bald patches.
- Full-body hair loss. Some conditions and medical treatments, such as chemotherapy for cancer, can result in the loss of hair all over your body. The hair usually grows back.
- Patches of scaling that spread over the scalp. This is a sign of ringworm. It may be accompanied by broken hair, redness, swelling and, at times, oozing.
When to see a doctor
See your doctor if your child or you are distressed by hair loss and want to pursue treatment. Also talk to your doctor if you notice sudden or patchy hair loss or more than usual hair loss when combing or washing your or your child's hair. Sudden hair loss can signal an underlying medical condition that requires treatment.
People typically lose about 100 hairs a day. This usually doesn't cause noticeable thinning of scalp hair because new hair is growing in at the same time. Hair loss occurs when this cycle of hair growth and shedding is disrupted or when the hair follicle is destroyed and replaced with scar tissue.
Hair loss is typically related to one or more of the following factors:
- Family history (heredity). The most common cause of hair loss is a hereditary condition called male-pattern baldness or female-pattern baldness. It usually occurs gradually with aging and in predictable patterns — a receding hairline and bald spots in men and thinning hair in women.
- Hormonal changes and medical conditions. A variety of conditions can cause permanent or temporary hair loss, including hormonal changes due to pregnancy, childbirth, menopause and thyroid problems. Medical conditions include alopecia areata (al-o-PEE-she-uh ar-e-A-tuh), which causes patchy hair loss, scalp infections such as ringworm and a hair-pulling disorder called trichotillomania (trik-o-til-o-MAY-nee-uh).
- Medications and supplements. Hair loss can be a side effect of certain drugs, such as those used for cancer, arthritis, depression, heart problems, gout and high blood pressure.
- Radiation therapy to the head. The hair may not grow back the same as it was before.
- A very stressful event. Many people experience a general thinning of hair several months after a physical or emotional shock. This type of hair loss is temporary.
- Certain hairstyles and treatments. Excessive hairstyling or hairstyles that pull your hair tight, such as pigtails or cornrows, can cause a type of hair loss called traction alopecia. Hot oil hair treatments and permanents can cause inflammation of hair follicles that leads to hair loss. If scarring occurs, hair loss could be permanent.
A number of factors can increase your risk of hair loss, including:
- Family history of balding, in either of your parent's families
- Significant weight loss
- Certain medical conditions, such as diabetes and lupus
Most baldness is caused by genetics (male-pattern baldness and female-pattern baldness). This type of hair loss is not preventable.
These tips may help you avoid preventable types of hair loss:
- Avoid tight hairstyles, such as braids, buns or ponytails.
- Avoid compulsively twisting, rubbing or pulling your hair.
- Treat your hair gently when washing and brushing. A wide-toothed comb may help prevent pulling out hair.
- Avoid harsh treatments such as hot rollers, curling irons, hot oil treatments and permanents.
- Avoid medications and supplements that could cause hair loss.
- Protect your hair from sunlight and other sources of ultraviolet light.
- Stop smoking. Some studies show an association between smoking and baldness in men.
- If you are being treated with chemotherapy, ask your doctor about a cooling cap. This cap can reduce your risk of losing hair during chemotherapy.
Hair loss care at Mayo Clinic
May 10, 2018
- Hair loss. U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://medlineplus.gov/hairloss.html. Accessed Jan. 24, 2018.
- Hair loss. American Academy of Family Physicians. https://familydoctor.org/condition/hair-loss/. Accessed Jan. 24, 2018.
- Hair transplants. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. www.asds.net. Accessed Jan. 24, 2018.
- Riggin EA. Decision Support System. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Sept. 26, 2017.
- AskMayoExpert. Alopecia. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2017.
- Hair loss. American Cancer Society. https://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatments-and-side-effects/physical-side-effects/hair-loss.html. Accessed Jan. 24, 2018.
- Hair restoration. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com. Accessed Jan. 24, 2018.
- Van Zuuren EJ, et al. Interventions for female pattern hair loss. JAMA Dermatology. 2017;153:329.
- Shapiro J, et al. Evaluation and diagnosis of hair loss. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 25, 2018.
- Banka N, et al. Pattern hair loss in men: Diagnosis and treatment. Dermatologic Clinics. 2013;31:129.
- Mirmirati P. Age-related hair changes in men: Mechanisms and management of alopecia and graying. Maturitas. 2015;80:58.
- Champagne C, et al. Hair loss in infancy and childhood. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2014;25:2.
- Hereditary hair loss. Mayo Clinic Health Letter. 2016;4:1.
- McMichael A. Female pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia in women): Pathogenesis, clinical features and diagnosis. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Jan. 24, 2018.
- Safety announcement. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm258314.htm. Accessed Jan. 24, 2018.
- Phillips T, et al. Hair loss: Common causes and treatment. American Family Physician. 2017;96:371.