Bicuspid aortic valve with stenosis
Some people are born with an aortic valve that has two cusps (bicuspid aortic valve) instead of three. This valve can function like any other aortic valve. It may lead to a narrowed or obstructed aortic valve opening (aortic valve stenosis), making it difficult for the heart to pump blood into the aorta. It can also lead to leaking of blood back from the aorta into the left ventricle (aortic valve regurgitation), increasing the volume of blood that the heart has to pump with each beat.